• 1
    Arbyn M, Herbert A, Schenck U, et al. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology. Cytopathology 2007; 18: 1339.
  • 2
    NHSCSP. Taking samples for cervical screening a resource pack for trainers. National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. Sheffield: NHSCSP Publication, 2006.
  • 3
    Ronco G, Giorgi-Rossi P, Carozzi F, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus testing for the detection of invasive cervical cancers and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2010; 11: 24957.
  • 4
    Rijkaart DC, Berkhof J, Rozendaal L, et al. Human papillomavirus testing for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer: final results of the POBASCAM randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 7888.
  • 5
    Arbyn M, Sanjose SD, Saraiya M, et al. EUROGIN 2011 roadmap on prevention and treatment of HPV-related disease. Int J Cancer 2012; 131: 196982.
  • 6
    Stewart DE, Gagliardi A, Johnston M, et al. Self-collected samples for testing of oncogenic human papillomavirus: a systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2007; 29: 81728.
  • 7
    Petignat P, Faltin DL, Bruchim I, et al. Are self-collected samples comparable to physician-collected cervical specimens for human papillomavirus DNA testing? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Oncol 2007; 105: 5305.
  • 8
    Khanna N, Mishra SI, Tian G, et al. Human papillomavirus detection in self-collected vaginal specimens and matched clinician-collected cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007; 17: 61522.
  • 9
    Huynh J, Howard M, Lytwyn A. Self-collection for vaginal human papillomavirus testing: systematic review of studies asking women their perceptions. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2010; 14: 35662.
  • 10
    Igidbashian S, Boveri S, Spolti N, et al. Self-collected human papillomavirus testing acceptability: comparison of two self-sampling modalities. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2011; 20: 397402.
  • 11
    Holanda F, Jr, Castelo A, Veras TM, et al. Primary screening for cervical cancer through self sampling. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006; 95: 17984.
  • 12
    Qiao YL, Sellors JW, Eder PS, et al. A new HPV-DNA test for cervical-cancer screening in developing regions: a cross-sectional study of clinical accuracy in rural China. Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 92936.
  • 13
    Lazcano-Ponce E, Lorincz AT, Cruz-Valdez A, et al. Self-collection of vaginal specimens for human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer prevention (MARCH): a community-based randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 378: 186873.
  • 14
    Bais AG, van Kemenade FJ, Berkhof J, et al. Human papillomavirus testing on self-sampled cervicovaginal brushes: an effective alternative to protect nonresponders in cervical screening programs. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 150510.
  • 15
    Sanner K, Wikstrom I, Strand A, et al. Self-sampling of the vaginal fluid at home combined with high-risk HPV testing. Br J Cancer 2009; 101: 8714.
  • 16
    Gök M, Heideman DA, van Kemenade FJ, et al. HPV testing on self collected cervicovaginal lavage specimens as screening method for women who do not attend cervical screening: cohort study. BMJ 2010; 340: c1040.
  • 17
    Gök M, van Kemenade FJ, Heideman DA, et al. Experience with high-risk human papillomavirus testing on vaginal brush-based self-samples of non-attendees of the cervical screening program. Int J Cancer 2012; 130: 112835.
  • 18
    Virtanen A, Anttila A, Luostarinen T, et al. Self-sampling versus reminder letter: effects on cervical cancer screening attendance and coverage in Finland. Int J Cancer 2011; 128: 26817.
  • 19
    Virtanen A, Nieminen P, Luostarinen T, et al. Self-sample HPV tests as an intervention for nonattendees of cervical cancer screening in Finland: a randomized trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011; 20: 19609.
  • 20
    Szarewski A, Cadman L, Mesher D, et al. HPV self-sampling as an alternative strategy in non-attenders for cervical screening—a randomised controlled trial. Br J Cancer 2011; 104: 91520.
  • 21
    Wikstrom I, Lindell M, Sanner K, et al. Self-sampling and HPV testing or ordinary Pap-smear in women not regularly attending screening: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2011; 105: 3379.
  • 22
    Giorgi RP, Marsili LM, Camilloni L, et al. The effect of self-sampled HPV testing on participation to cervical cancer screening in Italy: a randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN96071600). Br J Cancer 2011; 104: 24854.
  • 23
    Garcia F, Barker B, Santos C, et al. Cross-sectional study of patient- and physician-collected cervical cytology and human papillomavirus. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 102: 26672.
  • 24
    Yoshida T, Sano T, Kanuma T, et al. Usefulness of CINtec(R) PLUS p16/Ki-67 double-staining in cytological screening of cervical cancer. Acta Cytol 2011; 55: 41320.
  • 25
    Budge M, Halford J, Haran M, et al. Comparison of a self-administered tampon ThinPrep test with conventional pap smears for cervical cytology. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 45: 21519.
  • 26
    Nobbenhuis MA, Helmerhorst TJ, van den Brule AJ, et al. Primary screening for high risk HPV by home obtained cervicovaginal lavage is an alternative screening tool for unscreened women. J Clin Pathol 2002; 55: 4359.
  • 27
    Brink AA, Meijer CJ, Wiegerinck MA, et al. High concordance of results of testing for human papillomavirus in cervicovaginal samples collected by two methods, with comparison of a novel self-sampling device to a conventional endocervical brush. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 251823.
  • 28
    Ogilvie GS, Patrick DM, Schulzer M, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of self collected vaginal specimens for human papillomavirus compared to clinician collected human papillomavirus specimens: a meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect 2005; 81: 20712.
  • 29
    Schmeink CE, Bekkers RL, Massuger LF, et al. The potential role of self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer screening. Rev Med Virol 2011; 21: 13953.
  • 30
    Glasziou P, Irwig L, Bain C, et al. Systematic reviews in health care: a practical guide., 1st edn. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 2001.
  • 31
    Wright TC, Jr, Denny L, Kuhn L, et al. HPV DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples compared with cytologic screening to detect cervical cancer. JAMA 2000; 283: 816.
  • 32
    Sellors JW, Lorincz AT, Mahony JB, et al. Comparison of self-collected vaginal, vulvar and urine samples with physician-collected cervical samples for human papillomavirus testing to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. CMAJ 2000; 163: 51318.
  • 33
    Belinson J, Qiao YL, Pretorius R, et al. Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study: a cross-sectional comparative trial of multiple techniques to detect cervical neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83: 43944.
  • 34
    Belinson JL, Qiao YL, Pretorius RG, et al. Shanxi Province cervical cancer screening study II: self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus compared to direct sampling for human papillomavirus and liquid based cervical cytology. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2003; 13: 81926.
  • 35
    Salmeron J, Lazcano-Ponce E, Lorincz A, et al. Comparison of HPV-based assays with Papanicolaou smears for cervical cancer screening in Morelos State, Mexico. Cancer Causes Control 2003; 14: 50512.
  • 36
    Szarewski A, Cadman L, Mallett S, et al. Human papillomavirus testing by self-sampling: assessment of accuracy in an unsupervised clinical setting. J Med Screen 2007; 14: 3442.
  • 37
    Bhatla N, Dar L, Patro AR, et al. Can human papillomavirus DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples compare with physician-collected cervical samples and cytology for cervical cancer screening in developing countries? Cancer Epidemiol 2009; 33: 44650.
  • 38
    Dijkstra MG, Heideman DA, van Kemenade FJ, et al. Brush-based self-sampling in combination with GP5+/6+-PCR-based hrHPV testing: high concordance with physician-taken cervical scrapes for HPV genotyping and detection of high-grade CIN. J Clin Virol 2012; 54: 14751.
  • 39
    Lorenzato FR, Singer A, Ho L, et al. Human papillomavirus detection for cervical cancer prevention with polymerase chain reaction in self-collected samples. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186: 9628.
  • 40
    Belinson JL, Hu S, Niyazi M, et al. Prevalence of type-specific human papillomavirus in endocervical, upper and lower vaginal, perineal and vaginal self-collected specimens: implications for vaginal self-collection. Int J Cancer 2010; 127: 11517.
  • 41
    Belinson JL, Du H, Yang B, et al. Improved sensitivity of vaginal self-collection and high-risk human papillomavirus testing. Int J Cancer 2012; 130: 185560.
  • 42
    Morrison EA, Goldberg GL, Hagan RJ, et al. Self-administered home cervicovaginal lavage: a novel tool for the clinical-epidemiologic investigation of genital human papillomavirus infections. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 167: 1047.
  • 43
    Hillemanns P, Kimmig R, Huttemann U, et al. Screening for cervical neoplasia by self-assessment for human papillomavirus DNA. Lancet 1999; 354: 1970.
  • 44
    Seo SS, Song YS, Kim JW, et al. Good correlation of HPV DNA test between self-collected vaginal and clinician-collected cervical samples by the oligonucleotide microarray. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 102: 6773.
  • 45
    Daponte A, Pournaras S, Mademtzis I, et al. Evaluation of HPV 16 PCR detection in self- compared with clinician-collected samples in women referred for colposcopy. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 103: 4636.
  • 46
    Twu NF, Yen MS, Lau HY, et al. Type-specific human papillomavirus DNA testing with the genotyping array: a comparison of cervical and vaginal sampling. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011; 156: 96100.
  • 47
    Zhao FH, Lewkowitz AK, Chen F, et al. Pooled analysis of a self-sampling HPV DNA test as a cervical cancer primary screening method. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012; 104: 17888.
  • 48
    Castle PE, Schiffman M, Burk RD, et al. Restricted cross-reactivity of hybrid capture 2 with nononcogenic human papillomavirus types. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 13949.
  • 49
    Castle PE, Rodriguez AC, Porras C, et al. A comparison of cervical and vaginal human papillomavirus. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34: 84955.
  • 50
    Meijer CJ, Berkhof J, Castle PE, et al. Guidelines for human papillomavirus DNA test requirements for primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older. Int J Cancer 2009; 124: 51620.
  • 51
    Sasieni P, Adams J, Cuzick J. Benefit of cervical screening at different ages: evidence from the UK audit of screening histories. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 8893.
  • 52
    Peto J, Gilham C, Fletcher O, et al. The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK. Lancet 2004; 364: 24956.
  • 53
    Gök M, Heideman DA, van Kemenade FJ, et al. Offering self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing to non-attendees of the cervical screening programme: characteristics of the responders. Eur J Cancer 2012; 48: 1799808.
  • 54
    Eijsink JJ, Yang N, Lendvai A, et al. Detection of cervical neoplasia by DNA methylation analysis in cervico-vaginal lavages, a feasibility study. Gynecol Oncol 2011; 120: 2803.
  • 55
    Gezondheidsraad. Wet bevolkingsonderzoek: thuistest voor niet-deelneemsters aan de screening op baarmoederhalskanker (2). Den Haag, 2010;