• 1
    Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, et al. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages. Lancet Oncol 2007; 8: 2923.
  • 2
    American Institute for Cancer Research and World Cancer Research Fund. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.
  • 3
    Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, et al. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 2009; 373: 222333.
  • 4
    Middleton FK, Chikritzhs T, Stockwell T, et al. Alcohol use and prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009; 53: 24055.
  • 5
    World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. Systematic literature review on diet and prostate cancer: alcoholic beverages. In: Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Second Expert Report. Washington DC: AICR, 2007. 397447.
  • 6
    Chao C, Haque R, Van Den Eeden SK, et al. Red wine consumption and risk of prostate cancer: the California men's health study. Int J Cancer 2010; 126: 1719.
  • 7
    Gong ZH, Kristal AR, Schenk JM, et al. Alcohol consumption, finasteride, and prostate cancer risk results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer 2009; 115: 36619.
  • 8
    Rohrmann S, Linseisen J, Key TJ, et al. Alcohol consumption and the risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 12827.
  • 9
    Sutcliffe S, Giovannucci E, Leitzmann MF, et al. A prospective cohort study of red wine consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 152935.
  • 10
    Velicer CM, Kristal A, White E. Alcohol use and the risk of prostate cancer: results from the VITAL cohort study. Nutr Cancer 2006; 56: 506.
  • 11
    Watters JL, Park Y, Hollenbeck A, et al. Alcoholic beverages and prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 172: 77380.
  • 12
    Etzioni R, Penson DF, Legler JM, et al. Overdiagnosis due to prostate-specific antigen screening: lessons from U.S. prostate cancer incidence trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 98190.
  • 13
    Platz EA, De Marzo AM, Giovannucci E. Prostate cancer association studies: pitfalls and solutions to cancer misclassification in the PSA era. J Cell Biochem 2004; 91: 55371.
  • 14
    Donovan J, Mills N, Smith M, et al. Quality improvement report: improving design and conduct of randomised trials by embedding them in qualitative research: ProtecT (prostate testing for cancer and treatment) study. BMJ 2002; 325: 76670.
  • 15
    Ohori M, Wheeler TM, Scardino PT. The new American Joint Committee on Cancer and International Union Against Cancer TNM classification of prostate cancer. Cancer 1994; 73: 10414.
  • 16
    Gleason DF, The Veteran's Administration Cooperative Urologic Research Group. Histologic grading and clinical staging of prostatic carcinoma. In: Tannenbaum M, ed. Urologic pathology: the prostate. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1977. 17198 p.
  • 17
    Zuccolo L, Harris R, Gunnell D, et al. Height and prostate cancer risk: a large nested case-control study (ProtecT) and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 232536.
  • 18
    Jackson KM. Heavy episodic drinking: determining the predictive utility of five or more drinks. Psychol Addict Behav 2008; 22: 6877.
  • 19
    Harris A, Gray MA, Slaney DP, et al. Ethnic differences in diet and associations with clinical markers of prostate disease in New Zealand men. Anticancer Res 2004; 24: 25516.
  • 20
    Parsons JK, Im R. Alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 2009; 182: 14638.
  • 21
    Collin SM, Metcalfe C, Donovan J, et al. Associations of lower urinary tract symptoms with prostate-specific antigen levels, and screen-detected localized and advanced prostate cancer: a case-control study nested within the UK population-based ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) study. BJU Int 2008; 102: 14006.
  • 22
    Castro JA, Castro GD. Mechanisms in prostate damage by alcohol. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR, eds. Comprehensive handbook of alcohol related pathology, vol. 2. London: Academic Press, 2005. 100715 p.
  • 23
    World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria (No. 167): Acetaldehyde. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization (WHO), 2010.
  • 24
    Homann N, JousimiesSomer H, Jokelainen K, et al. High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications. Carcinogenesis 1997; 18: 173943.
  • 25
    Stowell AR. Improved method for the determination of acetaldehyde in human-blood with minimal ethanol interference. Clinica Chimica Acta 1979; 98: 2015.
  • 26
    Yokoyama A, Tsutsumi E, Imazeki H, et al. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34: 124656.
  • 27
    Khandrika L, Kumar B, Koul S, et al. Oxidative stress in prostate cancer. Cancer Lett 2009; 282: 12536.
  • 28
    Thompson IM, Pauler DK, Goodman PJ, et al. Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level <= 4.0 ng per milliliter. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 223946.
  • 29
    Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Fine J. 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA 2005; 293: 2095101.
  • 30
    Inoue LY, Etzioni R, Slate EH, et al. Combining longitudinal studies of PSA. Biostatistics 2004; 5: 483500.
  • 31
    International Agency for Cancer Research. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Report No.: 83:Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Cancer Research; 2004.
  • 32
    Smith DG, Ebrahim S. Mendelian randomization: can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease? Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32: 122.
  • 33
    Frankel S, Smith GD, Donovan J, Neal D. Screening for prostate cancer. Lancet 2003; 361: 11228.
  • 34
    Zheng SL, Sun J, Wiklund F, et al. Genetic variants and family history predict prostate cancer similar to prostate-specific antigen. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15: 110511.
  • 35
    Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 1975; 15: 61731.
  • 36
    Luo W, Birkett NJ, Ugnat AM, et al. Cancer incidence patterns among Chinese immigrant populations in Alberta. J Immigr Health 2004; 6: 418.
  • 37
    Shimizu H, Ross RK, Bernstein L, et al. Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County. Br J Cancer 1991; 63: 9636.
  • 38
    Stickel F, Schuppan D, Hahn EG, et al. Cocarcinogenic effects of alcohol in hepatocarcinogenesis. Gut 2002; 51: 1329.