• 1
    Guan P, Howell-Jones R, Li N, et al. Human papillomavirus types in 115,789 HPV-positive women: a meta-analysis from cervical infection to cancer. Int J Cancer 2012;131:234959.
  • 2
    Li N, Franceschi S, Howell-Jones R, et al. Human papillomavirus type distribution in 30,848 invasive cervical cancers worldwide: variation by geographical region, histological type and year of publication. Int J Cancer 2011;128:92735.
  • 3
    De Vuyst H, Lillo F, Broutet N, et al. HIV, human papillomavirus, and cervical neoplasia and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Eur J Cancer Prev 2008;17:54554.
  • 4
    Clifford GM, Goncalves MA, Franceschi S, for the HPV and HIV Study Group. Human papillomavirus types among women infected with HIV: a meta-analysis. AIDS 2006;20:233744.
  • 5
    van der Marel J, Quint WG, Schiffman M, et al. Molecular mapping of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia shows etiological dominance of HPV16. Int J Cancer 2012;131:E946E953.
  • 6
    Sellors JW, Sankaranarayanan R. Colposcopy and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a beginner's manual. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2003.
  • 7
    Pretorius RG, Bao YP, Belinson JL, et al. Inappropriate gold standard bias in cervical cancer screening studies. Int J Cancer 2007;121:221824.
  • 8
    Chung MH, McKenzie KP, De Vuyst H, et al. Comparing visual inspection with acetic acid, high-risk HPV testing, and Pap smear to colposcopic biopsy among HIV+ Women. 18th Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections, Boston, USA, Feb 27 to March 2, 2011. Presentation 41.
  • 9
    Chung MH, McKenzie KP, Richardson BA, et al. Cervical HIV-1 RNA shedding after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 2 or 3. AIDS 2011;25:191519.
  • 10
    De Vuyst H, Mugo NR, Chung MH, et al. Prevalence and determinants of human papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV-positive women in Kenya. Br J Cancer 2012;107:162430.
  • 11
    Luff RD. The Bethesda System for reporting cervical/vaginal cytologic diagnoses. Report of the 1991 Bethesda workshop. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;98:1524.
  • 12
    Frappart L, Fontanière B, Lucas E, et al. Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, Available from:, 2004. Accessed on 11 January 2013.
  • 13
    Jacobs MV, Walboomers JM, Snijders PJ, et al. Distribution of 37 mucosotropic HPV types in women with cytologically normal cervical smears: the age-related patterns for high-risk and low-risk types. Int J Cancer 2000;87:2217.
  • 14
    van den Brule AJ, Pol R, Fransen-Daalmeijer N, et al. GP5+/6+ PCR followed by reverse line blot analysis enables rapid and high-throughput identification of human papillomavirus genotypes. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:77987.
  • 15
    Schiffman M, Clifford G, Buonaguro FM. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline. Infect Agent Cancer 2009;4:8.
  • 16
    de Sanjose S, Bosch XF, Muñoz N, et al. Screening for genital human papillomavirus: results from an international validation study on human papillomavirus sampling techniques. Diagn Mol Pathol 1999;8:2631.
  • 17
    Gravitt PE, van Doorn LJ, Quint W, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping using paired exfoliated cervicovaginal cells and paraffin-embedded tissues to highlight difficulties in attributing HPV types to specific lesions. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45:324550.
  • 18
    Quint WG, Scholte G, van Doorn LJ, et al. Comparative analysis of human papillomavirus infections in cervical scrapes and biopsy specimens by general SPF(10) PCR and HPV genotyping. J Pathol 2001;194:518.
  • 19
    Quint W, Jenkins D, Molijn A, et al. One virus, one lesion—individual components of CIN lesions contain a specific HPV type. J Pathol 2012;227:6271.