Emerging role of nanog in tumorigenesis and cancer stem cells

Authors

  • Luis E. IV Santaliz-Ruiz,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH
    2. Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH
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  • Xiujie Xie,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH
    2. Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH
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  • Matthew Old,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH
    2. Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH
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  • Theodoros N. Teknos,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH
    2. Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH
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  • Quintin Pan

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH
    2. Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH
    • Correspondence to: Quintin Pan, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Medical Center, 442 Tzagournis Medical Research, 420 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA, E-mail: Quintin.Pan@osumc.edu

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Abstract

Nanog is a transcription factor that is well-established as a key regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) maintenance. Recent evidence demonstrates that Nanog is dysregulated and intimately involved in promoting tumorigenesis in part through regulation of the cancer stem cell (CSC) population. Elevated Nanog is associated with poorer outcome in numerous epithelial malignancies. Nanog is enriched in CSCs and ablation of Nanog is sufficient to reduce the CSC pool. Nanog has also been implicated to promote chemoresistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Insight into the Nanog signaling cascade, upstream regulators and downstream effectors, is beginning to emerge but remains to be fully elucidated. This review highlights the current literature on the emerging role of Nanog in tumorigenesis and CSCs.

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