A human leukemic cell line (THP-1) cultured from the blood of a boy with acute monocytic leukemia is described. This cell line had Fc and C3b receptors, but no surface or cytoplasmic immunoglobulins. HLA haplotypes of THP-1 were HLA-A2, -A9, -B5, -DRW1 and -DRW2. The monocytic nature of the cell line was characterized by: (1) the presence of α-naphthyl butyrate esterase activities which could be inhibited by NaF; (2) lysozyme production; (3) the phagocytosis of latex particles and sensitized sheep erythrocytes; and (4) the ability to restore T-lymphocyte response to Con A. The cells did not possess Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. These results indicate that THP-1 is a leukemic cell line with distinct monocytic markers. During culture, THP-1 maintained these monocytic characteristics for over 14 months.