Inactivated Candida albicans (CA) possesses strong anti-tumor activity when combined with cytoreductive chemotherapy in a mouse lymphoma model. In the present study, experiments were performed in order to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying CA immunoadjuvant activity. In vivo chemotherapy studies proved that the synergistic anti-tumor effects were lost in athymic (nu/nu) mice and were also abrogated by radiations. In vitro tests did not suggest a major involvement of natural cytotoxic effectors such as macrophages and natural killer cells nor did CA effects appear to be mediated by induction of interferon. It was concluded that the immunoadjuvant activity of CA largely relies on host responses against tumor-associated transplantation antigens with no major involvement of natural resistance immune mechanisms.