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Abstract

A case-control study examined the association between cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and serum and dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene. Cases (n = 102) had biopsy confirmed CIN I, II or III. Controls matched for age, ethnic origin and clinic (n = 102) had normal Pap smears. Participants completed health history and food frequency questionnaires. Fasting venous blood samples were assayed for serum carotenoids. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses yielded odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for those in quartiles 3, 2, and I (lowest) compared to quartile 4 (highest) of serum lycopene of 3.5 (I.I-II.5), 4.7 (1.2–17.7) and 3.8 (1.1–12.4), respectively. Similar analyses yielded adjusted odds ratios (OR, s) and 95% CIs of 4.6 (1.1–19.7), 5.8 (1.6–21.3) and 5.4 (1.3–23.3) for dietary intake of lycopene. The findings for lycopene-rich foods (tomatoes) were consistent with this result. CIN was not associated with the lutein. Findings for alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and cryptoxanthin were ambiguous. Quartile of vitamin C intake was also inversely associated with CIN with OR, s and 95% CIs of 3.7 (0.9–14.6), 4.1 (1.0–17.2), and 6.4 (1.4–30.0) for those in quartiles 3, 2, and I compared to quartile 4.