A case-control study of 268 patients with endometrial cancer and 268 population controls was conducted during 1988–1990 in Shanghai, China, to evaluate etiologic factors in a population whose risk had not been substantially altered by the use of exogenous estrogens. In spite of this, the major risk factors resembled those found in other studies. The risk of endometrial cancer was significantly elevated among nulli-gravidas (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.0-14.6) and decreased with number of pregnancies (p < 0.01). Late age at menopause was associated with increased risk, while early age at menarche was unrelated. Use of oral contraceptives for more than 2 years was associated with a reduction in endometrial cancer risk (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.1-1.2). while short-term use of oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception were unrelated. Obesity was a strong predictor of risk, with women in the highest quartile of weight having 2.5 times the risk of those in the lowest quartile. In contrast to many other studies, cigarette smokers were at elevated risk (OR = 1.7. 95% CI = 0.9-3.0). Risk was also elevated among women reporting a history of gall-bladder disease, polycystic ovaries, menstrual symptoms, and non-estrogen hormone use.