Meat, cooking methods and colorectal cancer: A case-referent study in Stockholm

Authors

  • Maria Gerhardsson de Verdier,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    • the University of Southern California School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, 1420 San Pablo Street, PMB B-200C, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
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  • Ulla Hagman,

    1. Nutritional Laboratory, Swedish National Food Administration, Uppsala
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  • Ruth K. Peters,

    1. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
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  • Gunnar Steineck,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm
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  • Eva Övervik

    1. Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden
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Abstract

The associations between methods of cooking meats and colorectal cancer were examined in a population-based case- referent study performed in Stockholm in 1986-1988. The study included 559 cases and 505 referents. Total meat intake, frequent consumption of brown gravy, and a preference for heavily browned meat surface each independently increased the risk for colorectal cancer. The relative risks (RR) were higher for rectal than for colon cancer, and for boiled meat (RR colon = 1.7, RR rectum = 2.7) than for meat fried with medium or lightly browned surface (RR colon = 0.8, RR rectum = 1.1), but the highest risks were for meat fried with heavily browned surface (RR colon = 2.8, RR rectum = 6.0). The analyses were adjusted for year of birth, gender and fat intake. Further adjustments for total energy, dietary fiber intake, body mass and physical activity had little or no influence on the results. The findings suggest that, in addition to frequent meat intake, a heavily browned meat surface formed when frying meat at high temperatures is important in the etiology colorectal cancer.

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