Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a remarkable entity among human tumors because of its constant association with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Malignant epithelial cells harbor the EBV genome and often express at least 2 species of latent EBV protein (EBNA1 and LMP1). Despite the massive presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, NPC cells obviously escape immune surveillance directed to EBV antigens. Previous investigations carried out on EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells have shown that this fact may be partially accounted for by a lack of expression of ICAM1 (CD54) and LFA3 (CD58). ICAM1 and LFA3 have therefore been investigated in fresh NPC biopsies and transplanted NPCs. With only I exception out of 9 cases, NPC cells appear to express high levels of ICAM I and low levels of LFA3. This is a complete inversion of the pattern observed in normal epithelial cells in vivo. Additional investigations will be required to determine to what extent these characteristics affect T-cell interactions with NPC cells, specially in the process of EBV-antigen recognition.