A case-control study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between dietary components and risk of colon cancer in the La Plata area of Argentina. Cases are 110 patients newly diagnosed with colon cancer in 10 major hospitals between 1985 and 1986. Two neighbourhood controls per case were individually matched by age, sex and place of residence. Personal interviews elicited information on frequency of consumption of 140 food items during the 5-year period up to 6 months prior to interview. Risk is analyzed by quartiles of individual food items and groups of items. Multivariate conditional logistic regression modelling indicates that consumption of eggs is associated with increased risk for colon cancer (odds ratios by quartile: 1.0, 1.58, 2.02, 4.66), as are some dairy products (ORs of 1.93 for the highest quartile of consumption of cheese). Intake of vegetables, fish and poultry is associated with statistically significant decreasing risk (ORs of 0.075, 0.39 and 0.39, for the highest categories of consumption of vegetables, fish and poultry, respectively). The risk for red meat does not consistently increase as consumption increases. Risks are not altered by the inclusion of potential confounders such as education or body mass index. These findings confirm those of several previous studies and are of particular interest, since the Argentinean diet typically includes a high intake of red meat.