Oral contraceptives, menopausal estrogens, and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in greece



In a hospital-based case-control study in Athens, we examined the association between the use of oral contraceptives and menopausal estrogens and the risk of breast cancer. Eight hundred and twenty patients with confirmed breast cancer were compared with 795 orthopedic patient controls and 753 healthy visitor controls, matched to the cases by age and interviewer. The data were modeled through logistic regression, controlling for demographic and reproductive variables. Odds ratio patterns were similar for the 2 control series, which were therefore combined to increase precision of the estimates. The risk for breast cancer was not elevated among ever-users of oral contraceptives, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, duration of oral contraceptive use or timing of use in relation to first full-term pregnancy. Among peri- and post-menopausal women who ever used menopausal estrogens, with never-users as the baseline, a statistically significant elevated odds ratio was found after adjusting for age at menopause. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.