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International Journal of Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 133 Issue 6

15 September 2013

Volume 133, Issue 6

Pages 1271–1515

  1. Mini Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    1. You have free access to this content
      Patterns of persistent genital human papillomavirus infection among women worldwide: A literature review and meta-analysis (pages 1271–1285)

      Anne F. Rositch, Jill Koshiol, Michael G. Hudgens, Hilda Razzaghi, Danielle M. Backes, Jeanne M. Pimenta, Eduardo L. Franco, Charles Poole and Jennifer S. Smith

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27828

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  2. Carcinogenesis

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    1. You have free access to this content
      CADM1 and MAL promoter methylation levels in hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes increase proportional to degree and duration of underlying cervical disease (pages 1293–1299)

      Mariska Bierkens, Albertus T. Hesselink, Chris J.L.M. Meijer, Daniëlle A.M. Heideman, G. Bea A. Wisman, Ate G.J. van der Zee, Peter J.F. Snijders and Renske D.M. Steenbergen

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28138

      What's new?

      The worse the cervical disease, the more heavily methylated the promoters of two genes, CADM1 and MAL, according to a new study. The authors compared the promoter methylation level of the two genes in hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes with the CIN-grade of the underlying disease to try to spot any correlation. Patients with CIN 2/3 had significantly increased promoter methylation of both genes, and those with carcinomas had tremendous increases. Methylation levels also seem to be higher with longer duration of HPV infection, and in hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes with abnormal cytology. Overall, testing for promoter methylation of CADM1 and MAL in cervical scrapes appears to be quite useful for detecting whether a patient requires treatment for cervical disease.

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      Mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: An environmental pollutant and a tobacco smoke constituent (pages 1300–1309)

      Kun-Ming Chen, Joseph B. Guttenplan, Shang-Min Zhang, Cesar Aliaga, Timothy K. Cooper, Yuan-Wan Sun, Joseph DelTondo, Wieslawa Kosinska, Arun K. Sharma, Kun Jiang, Richard Bruggeman, Kwangmi Ahn, Shantu Amin and Karam El-Bayoumy

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28152

      What's new?

      Tobacco smoking is the most important carcinogen in the development of oral cancer but molecular studies are hampered by the lack of an adequate animal model. The authors addressed this issue by developing a novel animal model that demonstrates the potent carcinogenicity of (±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE, a metabolite of the tobacco smoke constituent dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the oral cavity of mice. They demonstrate that this model is an appropriate platform to explore genetic and epigenetic alterations that can account for the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The model may also serve to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of agents, which modulate critical molecular mediators such as p53 or COX-2 involved in oral carcinogenesis.

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      The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates Lin28B via activating TF II D to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells (pages 1310–1322)

      Qian Liu, Xiao Bai, Hang Li, Yingyi Zhang, Yu Zhao, Xiaodong Zhang and Lihong Ye

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28154

      What's new?

      One protein that can spur on breast cancer is hepatitis B X-interacting protein, or HBXIP. In this paper, the authors report that HBXIP boosts expression of another protein, Lin28B, which also helps drive cancer progression. Lin28B returns the favor by suppressing a microRNA, miR-520b, which inhibits HBXIP expression. Thus Lin28B helps keep HBXIP levels high, and HBXIP promotes carcinogenesis by upregulating Lin28B, suggesting HBXIP could make a good therapeutic target for treating breast cancer.

  3. Cancer Cell Biology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      AMXT-1501, a novel polyamine transport inhibitor, synergizes with DFMO in inhibiting neuroblastoma cell proliferation by targeting both ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine transport (pages 1323–1333)

      Katherine Samal, Ping Zhao, Ann Kendzicky, Lisette P. Yco, Heather McClung, Eugene Gerner, Mark Burns, André S. Bachmann and Giselle Sholler

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28139

      What's new?

      In neuroblastoma, amplification of the MYCN oncogene signals poor prognosis. MYCN influences the cell's production of polyamines by activating ODC, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis. There is a drug, DFMO, that can inhibit ODC expression, but cells can get around this inhibition by taking up polyamines from other sources. This paper tests a novel polyamine transport inhibitor, AMXT-1501, which can be used in concert with DMFO to thwart NB. When tested in NB cell lines, treatment with the two agents together significantly depleted the cell's polyamine content, better than either agent alone, inhibiting cell growth and suggesting a potential new strategy for treating this childhood cancer.

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      Dysfunctional endothelial cells directly stimulate cancer inflammation and metastasis (pages 1334–1344)

      Joseph W. Franses, Natalia C. Drosu, William J. Gibson, Vipul C. Chitalia and Elazer R. Edelman

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28146

      What's new?

      It has long been known that the endothelial cells that line blood vessels can influence vascular health, repair, and disease (e.g. plaque formation in atherosclerosis). Researchers have only recently begun to understand, however, the role that endothelial cells play in tumor progression. In this study, the authors found that dysfunctionally activated endothelial cells can stimulate pro-inflammatory signaling and spontaneous metastasis of lung tumors in mice. Insights into non-malignant vascular biology may thus potentially guide future work in the vascular biology of cancer.

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      Sox21 inhibits glioma progression in vivo by forming complexes with Sox2 and stimulating aberrant differentiation (pages 1345–1356)

      Demet Caglayan, Erika Lundin, Marianne Kastemar, Bengt Westermark and Maria Ferletta

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28147

      What's new?

      Glioma formation is driven by brain tumor-initiating cells with stem cell-like properties. Here the authors show for the first time that the transcription factor Sox21 can act as a suppressor gene in gliomagenesis. Induced expression of Sox21 in human glioma cells results in reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival of xenotranplanted mice. Sox21 reduces the stem-cell like properties of the tumor cells, leading to abnormal differentiation, induced apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. The results point to a shift in balance between the counteracting and widely distributed Sox2 and Sox21, revealing the Sox2/Sox21 axis as a target for novel therapy of gliomas.

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      Mitochondrial modulation decreases the bortezomib-resistance in multiple myeloma cells (pages 1357–1367)

      I.S. Song, H.K. Kim, S.R. Lee, S.H. Jeong, N. Kim, K.S. Ko, B.D. Rhee and J. Han

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28149

      What's new?

      While proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an effective drug for multiple myeloma (MM), therapy can cause both intrinsic and acquired resistance. Here the authors evaluated the involvement of mitochondria using bortezomib-resistant and -sensitive MM cell lines. Indices of mitochondrial function, including membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, and adenosine-5'-triphosphate and mitochondrial Ca2+ concentrations, were positively correlated with drug resistance. Mitochondrial genes such as CYPD, SOD2, and MCU were also differentially expressed, contributing to the differential mitochondrial activity and sensitivity to bortezomib. Studying mitochondrial activity and specific mitochondrial gene expression in MM specimens might help predict resistance to pro-apoptotic chemotherapies and inform clinical decision-making.

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      Kindlin 2 promotes breast cancer invasion via epigenetic silencing of the microRNA200 gene family (pages 1368–1379)

      Yu Yu, Junzhou Wu, Lizhao Guan, Lihua Qi, Yan Tang, Bo Ma, Jun Zhan, Yunling Wang, Weigang Fang and Hongquan Zhang

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28151

      What's new?

      Recent studies have implicated Kindlin 2, a focal adhesion protein, in boosting tumor progression. This study investigated the association of Kindlin 2 with microRNAs (miRNAs), which are frequently altered in cancer. The authors showed that Kindlin 2 forms a complex with DNA methyltransferase 3A, and this complex then blocks the miR-200b promoter. MicroRNAs in the miR-200 family function as tumor repressors, and their loss is crucial for cell invasion and tumor progression. These new results demonstrate for the first time that Kindlin 2 promotes breast cancer invasion by working together with DNA methyltransferase 3A to stifle miR-200b expression.

  4. Cancer Genetics

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      Increased copy-number and not DNA hypomethylation causes overexpression of the candidate proto-oncogene CYP24A1 in colorectal cancer (pages 1380–1388)

      Julia Höbaus, Doris M. Hummel, Ursula Thiem, Irfete S. Fetahu, Abhishek Aggarwal, Leonhard Müllauer, Gerwin Heller, Gerda Egger, Ildiko Mesteri, Sabina Baumgartner-Parzer and Enikö Kallay

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28143

      What's new?

      Recently, it has been suggested that the association between colorectal cancer and reduced levels of circulating vitamin D may be related to overexpression of the vitamin D-catabolizing enzyme, CYP24A1 in the tumor. In this search for a mechanistic explanation, increased CYP24A1 gene copy number was associated with the enzyme's overexpression in 60 percent of colorectal tumors, and expression was correlated strongly with proliferation markers. The findings suggest that CYP24A1 overexpression is likely to deplete tumor calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) levels, possibly increasing the proliferative potential of the tumors.

  5. Infectious Causes of Cancer

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      Identification of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas with active HPV16 involvement by immunohistochemical analysis of the retinoblastoma protein pathway (pages 1389–1399)

      Dana Holzinger, Christa Flechtenmacher, Nataly Henfling, Ines Kaden, Niels Grabe, Bernd Lahrmann, Markus Schmitt, Jochen Hess, Michael Pawlita and Franz X. Bosch

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28142

      What's new?

      Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer is on the rise in Western countries, creating a need for fast and inexpensive detection. The authors of this study build on their previous identification of biomarkers for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and refine detection methods for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy material. Fixed and embedded OPSCC specimens were examined for expression of cellular markers indicative of active HPV infection. In situations when FFPE biopsies are the only available specimens, the marker combination high p16INK4a and low pRb appears to be suitable for identification of HPV16-active OPSCC.

  6. Tumor Immunology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      DNA fusion vaccine designs to induce tumor-lytic CD8+ T-cell attack via the immunodominant cysteine-containing epitope of NY-ESO 1 (pages 1400–1407)

      Juan Campos-Perez, Jason Rice, David Escors, Mary Collins, Alex Paterson, Natalia Savelyeva and Freda K. Stevenson

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28156

      What's new?

      Vaccine-targeted cancer peptides containing amino acids such as cysteine, can be post-translationally modified in unpredictable ways by tumor cells, making peptide design difficult. In contrast, DNA fusion gene vaccines deliver peptide in a form which mimics tumor cell processing and induce high levels of tumor-lytic CD8+ T cells. This simple strategy obviates the need for analogue peptides, which, even when optimized, generate both relevant and irrelevant responses.

  7. Early Detection and Diagnosis

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      The unfolded protein response regulator GRP78 is a novel predictive biomarker in colorectal cancer (pages 1408–1418)

      Michael Thornton, Mohammed A. Aslam, Elizabeth M. Tweedle, Chin Ang, Fiona Campbell, Richard Jackson, Eithne Costello, Paul S. Rooney, Nikolina Vlatković and Mark T. Boyd

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28137

      What's new?

      The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is an important cellular adaptation mechanism but can also trigger cell death depending on the nature and severity of the stress stimulus. The authors examined the UPR protein GRP78 as a predictive marker for benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. They find that high expression of GRP78 in cancer tissue is associated with increased overall 5-year survival. In vitro studies demonstrate that GRP78 is a determinant of cellular sensitivity to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in p53 wild-type cells, providing a molecular basis for the observed patient association. Future studies will demonstrate whether GFP78 measurements may represent a new clinical stratification tool to guide decisions whether patients with colorectal cancer should receive adjuvant chemotherapy.

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      Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 upregulation predicts a poor prognosis of gastric cancer, and promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion (pages 1419–1430)

      Lin Wang, Yajun Wu, Li Lin, Pengmin Liu, Hui Huang, Wenjun Liao, Dayong Zheng, Qiang Zuo, Li Sun, Na Huang, Min Shi, Yulin Liao and Wangjun Liao

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28140

      What's new?

      The oncogene metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) has been reported to promote the progression of colorectal and pancreatic cancers, though whether it has a similar role in gastric cancer has remained uncertain. Here, MACC1 is demonstrated to be closely associated with progression, recurrence, metastasis, and mortality of gastric cancer in patients. It was also found to stimulate growth and metastasis of gastric tumors in athymic mice, to promote proliferation and invasion in gastric cancer cells, and to modulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The findings suggest that MACC1 may be a novel prognostic indicator for gastric cancer.

  8. Epidemiology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      Association of pre-diagnosis physical activity with recurrence and mortality among women with breast cancer (pages 1431–1440)

      Martina E. Schmidt, Jenny Chang-Claude, Alina Vrieling, Petra Seibold, Judith Heinz, Nadia Obi, Dieter Flesch-Janys and Karen Steindorf

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28130

      What's new?

      Whether pre-diagnosis physical activity impacts risk of recurrence and mortality from breast cancer has remained unclear, though such associations could have implications for the interpretation of patient outcome. Here, analysis of data on 3,393 nonmetastatic breast cancer patients reveals an inverse association between pre-diagnosis physical activity and overall mortality, but primarily for instances of death apparently unrelated to breast cancer, such as non-breast neoplasms and circulatory events. Higher levels of exercise were linked to a reduced risk of disease recurrence among patients with ER-/PR- breast tumors.

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      Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya (pages 1441–1446)

      Hugo De Vuyst, Michael H. Chung, Iacopo Baussano, Nelly R. Mugo, Vanessa Tenet, Folkert J. van Kemenade, Farzana S. Rana, Samah R. Sakr, Chris J.L.M. Meijer, Peter J.F. Snijders and Silvia Franceschi

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28131

      What's new?

      Assignment of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to individual cervical lesions is essential for the understanding of the biology of different HPV types, efficacy of HPV vaccines, and design of detection assays. Such attribution is however hampered in HIV-positive women by the high proportion of multiple HPV infections. This study is the first to systematically compare HPV detection in paired cervical exfoliated cells and cervical tissue biopsies. HPV testing using biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. Exclusive reliance on biopsies also decreased the proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to vaccine-preventable HPV16 and/or 18 infection.

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      Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: A large case–control study in Italy (pages 1447–1451)

      Carlo La Vecchia, Adriano Decarli, Mauro Serafini, Maria Parpinel, Rino Bellocco, Carlotta Galeone, Cristina Bosetti, Antonella Zucchetto, Jerry Polesel, Pagona Lagiou, Eva Negri and Marta Rossi

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28133

      What's new?

      A diet rich in fruit and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of common cancers, including colorectal cancer. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), rather than individual components, has been suggested as a relevant factor for cancer risk. In this case-control study of over 6,000 patients, the authors used several different techniques to measure the dietary TAC of subjects' usual diet, and found a consistent inverse relationship between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer risk.

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      Association of cancer with moderately impaired renal function at baseline in a large, representative, population-based cohort followed for up to 30 years (pages 1452–1458)

      Anders Christensson, Caroline Savage, Daniel D. Sjoberg, Angel M. Cronin, M. Frank O'Brien, William Lowrance, Peter M. Nilsson, Andrew J. Vickers, Paul Russo and Hans Lilja

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28144

      What's new?

      Previous reports have described intriguing links between chronic kidney disease and increased risk of cancer, though the nature of the associations has remained largely uncharacterized. This investigation of the long-term risk of all cancers in relation to decreased kidney function sheds light on those earlier findings, revealing that both terminal renal failure and moderately reduced renal function are associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer specifically. Overall long-term risk of other cancers was insignificant in the study population. The findings warrant further study to identify possibly pathological mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the kidney.

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      The burden and costs of prevention and management of genital disease caused by HPV in women: A population-based registry study in Finland (pages 1459–1469)

      Heini Salo, Tuija Leino, Terhi Kilpi, Kari Auranen, Petri Tiihonen, Matti Lehtinen, Simopekka Vänskä, Miika Linna and Pekka Nieminen

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28145

      What's new?

      Finland is renowned for its low cervical cancer incidence and the performance of its organized screening. This is the first study to look at the total incidence of the less severe human papillomavirus (HPV) disease manifestations, associated healthcare utilization, and the volume of opportunistic Pap testing using nationwide, individually linkable, and up-to-date registry data. Understanding the entire disease burden is essential in developing the best strategy for the prevention of HPV-related diseases.

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      Prognosis of early breast cancer by immunohistochemistry defined intrinsic sub-types in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the NEAT/BR9601 trial (pages 1470–1478)

      Alaa M. Ali, Elena Provenzano, John M.S. Bartlett, Jean Abraham, Kristy Driver, Alison F. Munro, Christopher Twelves, Christopher J. Poole, Louise Hiller, Janet A. Dunn, Helena M. Earl, Carlos Caldas and Paul D. Pharoah

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28150

      What's new?

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of immunohistochemistry-defined breast cancer sub-types in a cohort of women who took part in clinical trials comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with and without epirubicin. The authors confirmed that intrinsic breast cancer sub-types based on immunohistochemistry for five biomarkers show distinct prognostic behaviours with differences in short and long term survival in women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, similarly to studies with unselected breast cancer cases. The sub-types were not predictive of the added benefit of epirubicin in these clinical trials, although small differences by sub-type cannot be excluded.

  9. Cancer Therapy

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      Cyclophosphamide enhances antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus expressing uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) in immunocompetent Syrian hamsters (pages 1479–1488)

      Naoyuki Hasegawa, Masato Abei, Kazunari K. Yokoyama, Kuniaki Fukuda, Emiko Seo, Rei Kawashima, Yuri Nakano, Takeshi Yamada, Koji Nakade, Hirofumi Hamada, Yuichi Obata and Ichinosuke Hyodo

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28132

      What's new?

      Oncolytic viruses offer great promise as cancer therapeutics, but host antiviral immunity must be overcome for their efficacy. This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of an oncolytic adenovirus (OAd) expressing uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and further enhancement of this efficacy by a high-dose or clinically-approved safe dose of the immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide (CP) in Syrian hamsters with or without preexisting immunity. This is the first study demonstrating enhancement by CP of the efficacy of an OAd armed with a therapeutic gene in Ad-permissive immunocompetent animals, indicating the ability of CP to overcome the hurdle of antiviral immunity for effective virus-gene therapy.

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      The VEGF receptor, neuropilin-1, represents a promising novel target for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (pages 1489–1496)

      Agnieszka Piechnik, Anna Dmoszynska, Marcin Omiotek, Radosław Mlak, Małgorzata Kowal, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Lars Bullinger and Krzysztof Giannopoulos

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28135

      What's new?

      The VEGF receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1) may be a critical link between angiogenesis and immune tolerance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, NRP1 expression and functional significance in CLL are characterized in detail. The work reveals significant elevation in the receptor's mRNA and protein levels in not only B lymphocytes but also regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs), which mediate tumor escape from immunosurveillance. In addition, VEGF stimulation of CLL cells was associated with increased NRP1 expression, suggesting a regulatory role over receptor expression for VEGF in CLL.

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      Immunotoxin targeting EpCAM effectively inhibits peritoneal tumor growth in experimental models of mucinous peritoneal surface malignancies (pages 1497–1506)

      Kjersti Flatmark, Ingrid J. Guldvik, Hege Svensson, Karianne G. Fleten, Vivi Ann Flørenes, Wenche Reed, Karl-Erik Giercksky, Øystein Fodstad and Yvonne Andersson

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28158

      What's new?

      Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy constitute a curative treatment option in mucinous peritoneal surface malignancies of intestinal origin, but treatment outcome is highly variable. Immunotoxins are attractive candidates for targeted therapy in the peritoneal cavity because of direct cytotoxicity, distinct mechanisms of action, and tumor cell selectivity. In unique animal models of mucinous peritoneal surface malignancies, the tumor-associated adhesion protein EpCAM was targeted by the MOC31PE immunotoxin. MOC31PE effectively inhibited tumor growth, both alone and in combination with cancer drug mitomycin C. The results suggest that adding MOC31PE to mitomycin C-based intraperitoneal chemotherapy should be further explored in clinical trials.

  10. Short Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Reviews
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
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      Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II contributes to inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase complex activation in Helicobacter pylori infection (pages 1507–1512)

      Gunter Maubach, Olga Sokolova, Markus Wolfien, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter and Michael Naumann

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28148

      What's new?

      Helicobacter pylori incites inflammation in gastric epithelial cells through NF-κB activation, increasing the risk of gastric cancer. But missing links in the mechanism are yet to be described. Here, the authors show, for the first time, that CAMKII and calmodulin participate in H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB. Constitutive or aberrant NF-κB activity promotes tumor survival, and CAMKII has been implicated in the regulation of cancer cell growth. Thus, this study offers the possibility that CAMKII and calmodulin are potential biomarkers and are of clinical importance for the diagnosis of gastric diseases, including gastric cancer.

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      Squamous cell carcinomas in patients with Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita: A search for human papillomavirus (pages 1513–1515)

      Blanche P. Alter, Neelam Giri, Sharon A. Savage, Wim G.V. Quint, Maurits N.C. de Koning and Mark Schiffman

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28157

      What's new?

      The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and gynecologic tract in patients with Fanconi anemia suggests a link to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, the possibility of an association has not been studied extensively, and studies that have been conducted have produced conflicting results. This analysis of tumors from patients with Fanconi anemia or dyskeratosis congenita yielded no evidence for HPV causality, indicating that HPV vaccination may not reduce the incidence of SCC in these patients. The findings warrant etiological investigation into non-HPV mechanisms of SCC in these populations.

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