International Journal of Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 134 Issue 5

1 March 2014

Volume 134, Issue 5

Pages 1013–1255

  1. Mini Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl in cancer: Biological functions and therapeutic implications (pages 1024–1033)

      Juliano D. Paccez, Matjaz Vogelsang, M. Iqbal Parker and Luiz F. Zerbini

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28246

  2. Cancer Cell Biology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. You have free access to this content
      The proinflammatory peptide substance P promotes blood–brain barrier breaching by breast cancer cells through changes in microvascular endothelial cell tight junctions (pages 1034–1044)

      Pedro L. Rodriguez, Shuxian Jiang, Yigong Fu, Shalom Avraham and Hava Karsenty Avraham

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28433

      What's new?

      Breast cancer cells migrate across the blood-brain barrier in more than one-fifth of patients with metastatic breast tumors. According to this study, that feat is accomplished in part by substance P-mediated changes in the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin-5 in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Substance P activation of BMECs led to secretion of TNF-α and angioprotein-2, which resulted in modifications in ZO-1 and claudin-5 localization and distribution and increased BMEC permeability. The findings suggest that substance P inhibition may be key to the success of therapies designed to prevent tumor cell colonization of the brain.

    2. PIAS3 activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells independent of p53 status (pages 1045–1054)

      Snehal Dabir, Amy Kluge, Karen McColl, Yu Liu, Minh Lam, Balazs Halmos, Gary Wildey and Afshin Dowlati

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28448

      What's new?

      The ability of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) to inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells in vitro suggests that it may be a valuable therapeutic target for the disease. But while PIAS3 is known to exert its effects through its blockade of STAT3 transcriptional activity, how it actually inhibits cell growth has remained unclear. In this study, overexpression of PIAS3 was found to trigger the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and uniquely activate a subset of apoptotic genes. These activities occurred independent of p53, indicating that PIAS3 could be of special importance in combatting p53 mutant cancer cells.

  3. Carcinogenesis

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Loss of PPARγ expression in mammary secretory epithelial cells creates a pro-breast tumorigenic environment (pages 1055–1066)

      Anthony J. Apostoli, Graham E.A. Skelhorne-Gross, Rachel E. Rubino, Nichole T. Peterson, Michael A. Di Lena, Mark M. Schneider, Sandip K. SenGupta and Christopher J.B. Nicol

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28432

      What's new?

      PPARγ is a transcription factor that has been implicated in several types of cancer, including breast cancer. In this study, the authors examined the role of PPARγ during breast tumorigenesis in mice, and found that it has a significant protective effect. Drugs that activate PPARγ may thus provide a new chemotherapeutic option for breast cancer patients, especially during the postpregnancy period when risk is transiently increased.

    2. A model of liver carcinogenesis originating from hepatic progenitor cells with accumulation of genetic alterations (pages 1067–1076)

      Soo Ki Kim, Akihiro Nasu, Junji Komori, Takahiro Shimizu, Yuko Matsumoto, Yasuko Minaki, Kenji Kohno, Kazuharu Shimizu, Shinji Uemoto, Tsutomu Chiba and Hiroyuki Marusawa

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28445

      What's new?

      The accumulation of stepwise genetic aberrations is a defining feature of cancer. To better understand this process in liver cancer, the present study leveraged the mutagenic ability of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) by using fetal hepatic progenitor cells from AID transgenic mice. The progenitor cells were transplanted into “toxin-receptor mediated conditional cell knockout” mice, where they accumulated genetic alterations sufficient to induce liver tumor formation, for both HCC and cholangiocarcinoma. The landscape of accumulated alterations was revealed by whole exome sequencing. The findings lend support to the idea that cancer arises from tissue stem/progenitor cells.

  4. Tumor Immunology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. Enhanced suppressive capacity of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells compared with their peripheral counterparts (pages 1077–1090)

      Sarah K. Maenhout, Sandra Van Lint, Perpetua U. Emeagi, Kris Thielemans and Joeri L. Aerts

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28449

      What's new?

      Attempts to wield the body's immune system against cancer often fail. One reason is the suppression of T cells by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). This study investigated exactly how MDSCs thwart T cells. They found that MDSCs isolated from the solid tumor were far more potent against T cells than those from the spleen, and that they express more CD80. Furthermore, when MDSCs were cultured together with regulatory T cells, that improved their ability to suppress T cells. These findings suggest possible ways to counter the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lymphokine-activated killer and dendritic cell carriage enhances oncolytic reovirus therapy for ovarian cancer by overcoming antibody neutralization in ascites (pages 1091–1101)

      V.A. Jennings, E.J. Ilett, K.J. Scott, E.J. West, R. Vile, H. Pandha, K. Harrington, A. Young, G.D. Hall, M. Coffey, P. Selby, F. Errington-Mais and A.A. Melcher

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28450

      What's new?

      Oncolytic viruses (OVs) specifically infect and kill tumor cells. In this study, the authors began to examine whether intraperitoneal delivery of an OV could be effective against ovarian cancer. They found that, while the virus does kill ovarian-cancer cells in vitro, this effect is blocked when ascites fluid is added. Cytotoxicity can be restored, however, by using a combination of lymphokine-activated killer and dendritic cells (LAKDC) as carriers, which protect the virus from neutralizing antibodies in the ascites. The LAKDC combination may also support subsequent adaptive immune priming.

  5. Early Detection and Diagnosis

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comet assay measures of DNA damage are predictive of bladder cancer cell treatment sensitivity in vitro and outcome in vivo (pages 1102–1111)

      Karen J. Bowman, Manar M. Al-Moneef, Benedict T. Sherwood, Alexandra J. Colquhoun, Jonathan C. Goddard, T.R. Leyshon Griffiths, David Payne, Sadmeet Singh, Paul C. Butterworth, Masood A. Khan, Duncan J. Summerton, William P. Steward, Valerie J. McKelvey-Martin, Stephanie R. McKeown, Roger C. Kockelbergh, J. Kilian Mellon, R. Paul Symonds and George D.D. Jones

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28437

      What's new?

      Treatment failure in bladder cancer is associated with poor survival, so the ability to sensitize tumor cells to treatment or to predict tumor response could have major impacts on patient outcome. Here, alkaline Comet assay (ACA) measures of bladder cancer cell DNA damage caused by chemotherapy were correlated with in vitro cancer cell chemosensitivity. Furthermore, reduced ACA measures of ex vivo radiation-induced damage was associated with poor treatment outcomes for non-muscle invasive disease following resection, based on ACA analysis of bladder tumor biopsies. The findings suggest that there is a link between resistance to DNA damage and both tumor treatment response and tumor aggression in bladder cancer.

    2. Identification of a novel, recurrent MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (pages 1112–1122)

      Barbara Dewaele, Joanna Przybyl, Anna Quattrone, Julio Finalet Ferreiro, Vanessa Vanspauwen, Ellen Geerdens, Valentina Gianfelici, Zeynep Kalender, Agnieszka Wozniak, Philippe Moerman, Raf Sciot, Sabrina Croce, Frederic Amant, Peter Vandenberghe, Jan Cools and Maria Debiec-Rychter

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28440

      What's new?

      Endometrial stromal tumors can be classified into three groups; among all the groups, the tumors frequently contain one of several possible chromosomal translocations. This study identified a new gene fusion that tends to occur in low-grade endometrial tumors. Clinicians may find it useful to identify this gene fusion as a way to help classify tumors that don't clearly fall into one category or the other.

    3. A study of embryonic stem cell-related proteins in human astrocytomas: Identification of Nanog as a predictor of survival (pages 1123–1131)

      Tamador Elsir, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Joseph Carlson, Dan Ribom, Michael Bergqvist, Simon Ekman, Svetlana N. Popova, Irina Alafuzoff, Fredrik Ponten, Monica Nistér and Anja Smits

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28441

      What's new?

      Most gliomas are notoriously resistant to therapy, which is possibly related to the presence of cancer stem cells. Embryonic stem cells (ECS) signatures have been described in cancer, including gliomas. This study aimed to investigate the presence and prognostic impact of the ESC-related proteins in human astrocytic glioma. As such, Nanog emerged as an independent prognostic marker, associated with worse prognosis in both low- and high-grade astrocytomas.

    4. Electronic nose can discriminate colorectal carcinoma and advanced adenomas by fecal volatile biomarker analysis: proof of principle study (pages 1132–1138)

      Tim G. de Meij, Ilhame Ben Larbi, Marc P. van der Schee, Yvette E. Lentferink, Tamara Paff, Jochim S. Terhaar sive Droste, Chris J. Mulder, Adriaan A. van Bodegraven and Nanne K. de Boer

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28446

      What's new?

      The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in feces is a promising approach to gastrointestinal disease detection. In this investigation, an electronic nose (or “e-nose”) was used for fecal gas analysis of stool samples collected from healthy controls and patients with colorectal carcinoma or advanced adenoma. VOC profiles for colorectal carcinoma and advanced adenoma were found to differ significantly from control profiles. The opportunity for scalability for high-throughput capacity makes e-nose fecal gas analysis especially appealing as a possible screening tool for the detection of colorectal malignancies.

    5. The presence of prostate cancer at biopsy is predicted by a number of genetic variants (pages 1139–1146)

      Aniruddh Kashyap, Wojciech Kluźniak, Dominika Wokołorczyk, Adam Gołąb, Andrzej Sikorski, Marcin Słojewski, Bartłomiej Gliniewicz, Jerzy Świtała, Tomasz Borkowski, Andrzej Borkowski, Andrzej Antczak, Łukasz Wojnar, Jacek Przybyła, Marek Sosnowski, Bartosz Małkiewicz, Romuald Zdrojowy, Paulina Sikorska-Radek, Józef Matych, Jacek Wilkosz, Waldemar Różański, Jacek Kiś, Krzysztof Bar, Piotr Bryniarski, Andrzej Paradysz, Konrad Jersak, Jerzy Niemirowicz, Piotr Słupski, Piotr Jarzemski, Michał Skrzypczyk, Jakub Dobruch, Paweł Domagała, Krzysztof Piotrowski, Anna Jakubowska, Jacek Gronwald, Tomasz Huzarski, Tomasz Byrski, Tadeusz Dębniak, Bohdan Górski, Bartłomiej Masojć, Thierry van de Wetering, Janusz Menkiszak, Mohammad R. Akbari, Jan Lubiński, Steven A. Narod, Cezary Cybulski and the Polish Hereditary Prostate Cancer Consortium

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28447

      What's new?

      While more than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, whether SNPs can predict the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy remains uncertain. In this multi-center study, 4,548 Polish men were biopsied and genotyped for 11 different SNPs, five of which were positively associated with prostate cancer. The cancer detection rate was 63 percent for men who carried seven or more risk alleles, though this high-risk group represents only about one percent of prostate cancers. The findings do not support SNPs as adjuncts to clinical screening.

  6. Epidemiology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. Progression of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (pages 1147–1155)

      J. Michael Berry, Naomi Jay, Ross D. Cranston, Teresa M. Darragh, Elizabeth A. Holly, Mark L. Welton and Joel M. Palefsky

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28431

      What's new?

      The elevated incidence of anal cancer seen among HIV-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) is presumably linked to the common occurrence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in this population. This study provides some of the first evidence for direct progression of the postulated HSIL precursors to anal cancer. MSM were followed for a period of more than 20 years with high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. The data provide conclusive evidence of the malignant potential of anal HSIL and underscore the potential to reduce anal cancer through targeted removal of anal HSIL.

    2. Total antioxidant intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (pages 1156–1165)

      Kjell M. Russnes, Kathryn M. Wilson, Mara M. Epstein, Julie L. Kasperzyk, Meir J. Stampfer, Stacey A. Kenfield, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff, Edward L. Giovannucci, Walter C. Willett and Lorelei A. Mucci

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28438

      What's new?

      Certain individual antioxidants may be able to protect against prostate cancer, whereas others have no beneficial effect. Here, the impact of total antioxidant intake on prostate cancer incidence was examined. A weak inverse association was identified for dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence, which was accounted for by coffee intake. A positive association was found for lethal and advanced prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from dietary supplements. The results suggest that different sources of total antioxidant capacity have different effects on prostate cancer risk and point toward coffee as an important subject of study in this context.

    3. Sleep duration and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of observational studies (pages 1166–1173)

      Yingyi Qin, Yuhao Zhou, Xiao Zhang, Xin Wei and Jia He

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28452

      What's new?

      Sleeping too little or too much may increase a person's risk of mortality from any cause. But whether this is true for breast cancer is unclear since previous studies have yielded inconsistent results. In this meta-analysis of six observational studies involving nearly 160,000 individuals, neither short nor long sleep durartion was found to be associated with breast cancer risk. Inconsistencty in sleep duration critera among the studies analyzed, however, suggests that further investigation is needed to clearly rule out possible associations.

    4. Late morbidity leading to hospitalization among 5-year survivors of young adult cancer: A report of the childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors research program (pages 1174–1182)

      Yang Zhang, Maria F. Lorenzi, Karen Goddard, John J. Spinelli, Carolyn Gotay and Mary L. McBride

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28453

      What's new?

      survivors of childhood cancers are known to have an increased risk of significant adverse and chronic complications over time. Little is known, however, about the overall burden of late morbidity among young-adult cancer survivors (YACS).In this study, the authors found that over half of 5-year YACS developed at least one type of late morbidity leading to hospitalization, emphasizing that young-adult caner survivors also have a high risk of various illnesses years after treatment has ended.

  7. Cancer Therapy

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. Bcr-Abl activates AURKA and AURKB in chronic myeloid leukemia cells via AKT signaling (pages 1183–1194)

      Jing Yang, Takayuki Ikezoe, Chie Nishioka, Keiko Udaka and Akihito Yokoyama

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28434

      What's new?

      Imatinib, which interrupts Bcr-Abl oncogenic signaling, has become the “gold standard” for treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, a subset of patients develop resistance to the drug. In this study, the authors first explored the molecular mechanisms by which Bcr-Abl induces expression of Aurora kinase A and B (AURKA and AURKB) in CML. They then found that MLN8237, an inhibitor of AURKA, significantly inhibits proliferation of CML cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inhibition of AURKA might provide a useful therapeutic adjunct for patients with imatinib-resistant CML.

    2. Oroxylin A has therapeutic potential in acute myelogenous leukemia by dual effects targeting PPARγ and RXRα (pages 1195–1206)

      Hui Hui, Yan Chen, Hao Yang, Kai Zhao, Qian Wang, Li Zhao, Xiaotang Wang, Zhiyu Li, Na Lu and Qinglong Guo

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28435

      What's new?

      Oroxylin A, a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, is a promising agent in the arena of anticancer drug development. Here, its cancer-fighting abilities are highlighted in experimental and mechanistic studies. The work demonstrates that oroxylin A possesses anti-leukemia activity in cell lines and xenografts, as well as in primary blasts from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Its effects included potent growth inhibition and differentiation induction. Mechanistic evaluation revealed that oroxylin A binds to and activates PPARγ to induce leukemic cell differentiation while reducing intranuclear phosphorylation of RXRα, resulting in the sensitization of nuclear receptors involved in cell differentiation.

    3. Detection rate and prognostic value of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA in metastatic uveal melanoma (pages 1207–1213)

      François-Clément Bidard, Jordan Madic, Pascale Mariani, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Aurore Rampanou, Vincent Servois, Nathalie Cassoux, Laurence Desjardins, Maud Milder, Isabelle Vaucher, Jean-Yves Pierga, Ronald Lebofsky, Marc-Henri Stern and Olivier Lantz

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28436

      What's new?

      In some cancers, tumor cells and tumor DNA find their way into the bloodstream and circulate around the body. These circulating markers present the tantalizing possibility of an easily performed test for disease prognosis. In this study, the authors sought to detect circulating tumor cells and DNA from metastatic uveal melanoma. They found that the two were highly correlated with each other, but not necessarily of strong prognostic value. Circulating tumor DNA, they report, was more frequently detected, and in patients with known mutations, might prove more useful for prognosis.

    4. A single nucleotide polymorphism on the GALNT14 gene as an effective predictor of response to chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 1214–1224)

      Chau-Ting Yeh, Kung-Hao Liang, Chen-Chun Lin, Ming-Ling Chang, Cheng-Lung Hsu and Chien-Fu Hung

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28439

      What's new?

      Thanks to the previous discovery of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in GALNT14, it may be possible to predict how patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) will respond to therapy with 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and cisplatin (FMP). Here, the predictive value of the SNP, known as rs9679162, is confirmed. In addition, a subgroup of patients with the “TT” GALNT14 genotype, whose tumors measured less than 10 cm and whose neutrophil levels in the blood were less than 74 percent, could achieve an excellent therapeutic response rate (47.1 percent) and long median overall survival (25.5 months).

    5. Transarterial chemoembolization of unresectable systemic chemotherapy-refractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer: Long-term results over a 10-year period (pages 1225–1231)

      Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Nagy N.N. Naguib, Katrin Eichler, Hanns Ackermann, Stephan Zangos, Jörg Trojan, Martin Beeres, Marc Harth, Boris Schulz, Nour-Eldin Nour-Eldin A. and Thomas J. Vogl

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28443

      What's new?

      About two-thirds of colorectal cancer patients develop life-threatening liver metastases, for which the only potentially curative therapy is resection. But only a small proportion of patients are candidates for resection, and those who undergo resection may suffer from intrahepatic recurrence. Here, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), a minimally invasive procedure, was explored for colorectal cancer liver metastases. TACE was performed repeatedly for each of more than 560 patients. Following treatment, 48.2 percent of patients had stable disease, and the 1-year survival rate was 62 percent. Initial tumor response was a significant prognostic factor for patient survival after TACE.

    6. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway aberrations in gastric and colorectal cancer: Meta-analysis, co-occurrence and ethnic variation (pages 1232–1238)

      Mei-Ling Chong, Marie Loh, Bhavin Thakkar, Brendan Pang, Barry Iacopetta and Richie Soong

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28444

      What's new?

      Aberrations in the PI3K-Akt pathway have been observed in many types of cancer cells, and inhibiting this pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy. However, it's important to have a more complete molecular picture in order to identify patient subgroups that are most likely to respond to therapy. In this study, the authors conducted both a meta-analysis and single-laboratory analysis to determine the frequency and co-occurrence of PI3K pathway aberrations, in gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). The study also found differences in the frequency of aberrations according to ethnicity and cancer type.

    7. A novel human Fab antibody for Trop2 inhibits breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo (pages 1239–1249)

      Hong Lin, Huiling Zhang, Jun Wang, Meiping Lu, Feng Zheng, Changjun Wang, Xiaojun Tang, Ning Xu, Renjie Chen, Dawei Zhang, Ping Zhao, Jin Zhu, Yuan Mao and Zhenqing Feng

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28451

      What's new?

      Human trophoblastic cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) is a calcium signaling molecule with oncogenic activity linked to tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Previous studies have indicated that it may be a valuable therapeutic target, as well as a prognostic or diagnostic marker. Here, a fully human Fab antibody targeting Trop2 was cloned and expressed. In breast cancer cell lines, Trop2 Fab inhibited growth, induced apoptosis, and suppressed migration, while in breast cancer xenografts, it successfully suppressed tumor growth and induced changes in the expression of cell death signaling molecules.

  8. Short Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Cancer Cell Biology
    4. Carcinogenesis
    5. Tumor Immunology
    6. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    7. Epidemiology
    8. Cancer Therapy
    9. Short Report
    1. Short report: Limited effectiveness of screening mammography in addition to clinical breast examination by trained nurse midwives in rural Jakarta, Indonesia (pages 1250–1255)

      D. Kardinah, Benjamin O. Anderson, Catherine Duggan, Ibrahim A Ali and David B Thomas

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28442

      What's new?

      Clinical breast examination (CBE) could provide a useful alternative to mammography in countries without adequate financial resources to deliver mammograms to their population. This study compared the effectiveness of CBE screening with mammography in more than one thousand women in Jakarta, Indonesia. Of the fourteen breast cancers that were diagnosed, all but one were detected by both CBE and mammogram; in only one did an abnormal mammogram detect a cancer that CBE failed to uncover.

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