You have free access to this content

International Journal of Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 135 Issue 1

01 July 2014

Volume 135, Issue 1

Pages 1–251

  1. Mini Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Nonclassical hedgehog-gli signaling and its clinical implications (pages 1–6)

      Lalita A. Shevde and Rajeev S. Samant

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28424

  2. Carcinogenesis

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Transcriptomic responses provide a new mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive effects of folic acid and tributyrin in rat liver carcinogenesis (pages 7–18)

      Aline H. Guariento, Kelly S. Furtado, Aline de Conti, Adriana Campos, Eduardo Purgatto, Jéssica Carrilho, Elvira Maria Guerra Shinohara, Volodymyr Tryndyak, Tao Han, James C. Fuscoe, Sharon A. Ross, Frederick A. Beland, Igor P. Pogribny and Fernando S. Moreno

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28642

      What's New?

      Active intervention with agents that suppress or attenuate early carcinogenesis or the progression of premalignant lesions represents a promising approach in cancer prevention. According to this study, for hepatocarcinogenesis, prevention may be effected through intervention with folic acid and tributyrin. The results demonstrate that the tumor-suppressing activity of folic acid and tributyrin, along with inhibition of cell proliferation and activation of apoptosis, is associated with inhibition of angiogenesis in early stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. The findings emphasize a key role for angiogenesis in early hepatocarcinogenesis and indicate that angiogenesis is an imperative target for chemoprevention.

  3. Cancer Cell Biology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      MED15, encoding a subunit of the mediator complex, is overexpressed at high frequency in castration-resistant prostate cancer (pages 19–26)

      Zaki Shaikhibrahim, Roopika Menon, Martin Braun, Anne Offermann, Angela Queisser, Diana Boehm, Wenzel Vogel, Kerstin Rüenauver, Christian Ruiz, Tobias Zellweger, Maria Svensson, Ove Andren, Glen Kristiansen, Nicolas Wernert, Lukas Bubendorf, Jutta Kirfel, Saskia Biskup and Sven Perner

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28647

      What's new?

      MED15, a subunit of the Mediator transcriptional regulator complex, has been implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This study shows that 70 percent of local-recurrent CRPCs and 76 percent of distant metastatic CRPCs overexpress MED15 and that MED15 overexpression defines a highly lethal phenotype. MED15 expression was found to be increased by TGF-ß activation, such that MED15 knockdown affected TGF-β signaling and TGF-β-enhanced proliferation. Knockdown also resulted in decreased androgen-dependent and -independent proliferative activity. The findings, taken together with the evolutionary conservation of MED15, suggest that MED15 in CRPC may be a model of therapeutic-resistant disease.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cancer stem cells maintain a hierarchy of differentiation by creating their niche (pages 27–36)

      Shuichi Matsuda, Ting Yan, Akifumi Mizutani, Tatsuyuki Sota, Yuki Hiramoto, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ling Chen, Ayano Satoh, Takayuki Kudoh, Tomonari Kasai, Hiroshi Murakami, Li Fu, David S. Salomon and Masaharu Seno

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28648

      What's new?

      Cancer stem cells wreak their devastation by taking root in a supportive microenvironment that provides needed factors for both self-renewal and differentiation. But how does the microenvironment, or niche, sustain the stem cells? To investigate, these authors established a CSC system in vitro and assessed whether the progeny cells of CSCs need to stay nearby to create the stem cell niche. They found that the differentiated progeny cells do release factors that maintain the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in the stem cells, in part through the Notch signaling pathway. Understanding this dynamic will help researchers develop strategies to hinder cancer stem cells' ability to take hold.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Inhibition of ATP citrate lyase induces triglyceride accumulation with altered fatty acid composition in cancer cells (pages 37–47)

      Toshiro Migita, Sachiko Okabe, Kazutaka Ikeda, Saori Igarashi, Shoko Sugawara, Akihiro Tomida, Tomoyoshi Soga, Ryo Taguchi and Hiroyuki Seimiya

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28652

      What's new?

      Most cancers cells turn on lipid production, and lipogenic enzymes that get activated in tumor cells could make attractive targets for therapy. In this paper, the authors discovered that blocking the lipogenic enzyme ACLY in cancer cells can slow growth and even kill the cells. Getting rid of ACLY, they found, halts the elongation of triglyceride chains, and reduces the production of a molecule that carries fatty acids into the mitochondria. This insight into cancer metabolism could lead to new ways to stop tumors.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Filamin A interacting protein 1-like inhibits WNT signaling and MMP expression to suppress cancer cell invasion and metastasis (pages 48–60)

      Mijung Kwon, Soo Jin Lee, Yarong Wang, Yevangelina Rybak, Alex Luna, Srilakshmi Reddy, Asha Adem, Brian T. Beaty, John S. Condeelis and Steven K. Libutti

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28662

      What's new?

      A critical first step in cancer metastasis is invasion, the inhibition of which could lead to the development of new cancer therapies. In the present study, a previously identified inhibitor of cancer metastasis, filamin A interacting protein 1-like (FILIP1L), is shown to block early steps of metastasis, including invasion and intravasation, in a doxycycline-inducible ovarian orthotopic mouse model. Mechanistic evaluation suggests that FILIP1L inhibits metastasis through blockade of WNT signaling. The findings indicate that FILIP1L may be a target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics.

  4. Cancer Genetics

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      A missense polymorphism in ATF6 gene is associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma probably by altering ATF6 level (pages 61–68)

      Xiaopan Wu, Zhenhui Xin, Wei Zhang, Sujun Zheng, Jia Wu, Kangmei Chen, Huifen Wang, Xilin Zhu, Zhuo Li, Zhongping Duan, Hui Li and Ying Liu

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28649

      What's New?

      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a frequent cause of HCC, and there is accumulating evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are also associated with risk of HCC. Because ATF6 is an important modulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is involved in carcinogenesis, here the authors speculated that SNPs in ATF6 may be associated with susceptibility to HCC. Using a 2-stage association study, they found a missense polymorphism that was strongly associated with HBV-related HCC and may contribute to susceptibility by altering ATF6 expression.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Evaluating the performance of clinical criteria for predicting mismatch repair gene mutations in Lynch syndrome: A comprehensive analysis of 3,671 families (pages 69–77)

      Verena Steinke, Stefanie Holzapfel, Markus Loeffler, Elke Holinski-Feder, Monika Morak, Hans K. Schackert, Heike Görgens, Christian Pox, Brigitte Royer-Pokora, Magnus von Knebel-Doeberitz, Reinhard Büttner, Peter Propping, Christoph Engel and on behalf of the German HNPCC Consortium

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28650

      What's new?

      Carriers of mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations have a high lifetime risk for a wide range of malignancies—an autosomal-dominant genetic condition that is known as Lynch syndrome. As mutation analysis to detect these patients is expensive and time-consuming, clinical criteria are widely used for pre-screening. Only a few studies have however been conducted to investigate the predictive performance of such clinical criteria. This larger study identified familial clustering of Lynch syndrome-related tumours, early age of onset, and familial occurrence of small-bowel cancer as relevant predictors, which may assist clinicians in proving the existence of Lynch syndrome in a family.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Multilayered molecular profiling supported the monoclonal origin of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 78–87)

      Yi Huang, Shengjie Gao, Song Wu, Pengfei Song, Xiaojuan Sun, Xueda Hu, Shiqiang Zhang, Yuan Yu, Jialou Zhu, Cailing Li, Zike Qin, Liangfu Xie, Qiong Yao, Aifa Tang, Zesong Li, Guangwu Guo, Shengqing Wan, Pei Dong, Liang Sun, Weiping Li, Daping Wang, Yaoting Gui, Huanming Yang, Fangjian Zhou, Xiuqing Zhang and Zhiming Cai

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28654

      What's new?

      While much is known about the intratumoral heterogeneity of primary renal cell carcinomas, the clonal composition of metastatic tumors remains unclear. To explore whether metastatic renal cell carcinomas stem from early dissemination or late diagnosis, the authors characterized the genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of multiple metastatic tumors from the same patient. They show that the metastatic tumor itself has a low degree of intratumoral heterogeneity, but likely results from the recent clonal expansion of a rare, advantageous subclone arising late within the primary tumor. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of early detection and molecular profiling of metastatic kidney tumors.

  5. Infectious Causes of Cancer

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007 (pages 88–95)

      Laia Alemany, Silvia de Sanjosé, Sara Tous, Wim Quint, Carlos Vallejos, Hai-Rim Shin, Luis E. Bravo, Patricia Alonso, Marcus A. Lima, Núria Guimerà, JoEllen Klaustermeier, Antonio Llombart-Bosch, Elena Kasamatsu, Silvio A. Tatti, Ana Felix, Carla Molina, Julio Velasco, Belen Lloveras, Omar Clavero, Enrique Lerma, Jan Laco, Ignacio G. Bravo, Rosa Guarch, Adela Pelayo, Jaume Ordi, Miguel Andújar, Gloria I. Sanchez, Xavier Castellsagué, Nubia Muñoz, F. Xavier Bosch and on Behalf of the RIS HPV TT Study Group

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28636

      What's new?

      Evaluation of the success or failure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs depends in part on knowledge of the historical contribution of the different HPV types to human cancer. The present study analyzed HPV type-specific relative contributions to invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over a 70-year period prior to the implementation of HPV vaccination. The relative contributions of different HPV types, including those for which a vaccine is now available, were found to be constant across decades. The findings indicate that HPV vaccination will have a high, stable impact on cervical cancer reduction.

  6. Tumor Immunology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Synergistic effect of lung tumor-associated dendritic cell-derived HB-EGF and CXCL5 on cancer progression (pages 96–108)

      Po-Lin Kuo, Ming-Shyan Huang, Jen-Yu Hung, Shah-Hwa Chou, Shin-Yi Chiang, Ya-Fang Huang, Chih-Jen Yang, Ming-Ju Tsai, Wei-An Chang and Ya-Ling Hsu

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28673

      What's New?

      Tumor development is determined by multi-faceted interactions between cancer cells and their complex microenvironments. The present study showed that growth factor HB-EGF and chemokine CXCL5 secreted by cancer-infiltrating dendritic cells exerted a synergistic influence on the various stages of cancer development. Neutralizing CXCL5 using CXCL5 antibody significantly decreased the incidence of cancer progression and enhanced the efficacy of gefitinib in mice. This study thus demonstrated the synergistic influence of different protumorigenic factors produced in cancer environments and shed light on their functional interactions and pathologic roles. It also suggested that selective inhibition of multiple targets may be of therapeutic benefit.

  7. Early Detection and Diagnosis

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Specimen self-collection and HPV DNA screening in a pilot study of 100,242 women (pages 109–116)

      Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Attila T. Lőrincz, Leticia Torres, Jorge Salmerón, Aurelio Cruz, Rosalba Rojas, Pilar Hernández and Mauricio Hernández

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28639

      What's new?

      DNA testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in self-collected vaginal specimens may be useful for the routine detection of cervical precancers. In this investigation of 100,242 women in Mexico, DNA testing of self-collected vaginal specimens was found to have an adjusted positive predictive value of 2.4% and an adjusted negative predictive value of 99.8%. The study sheds light on potential scale-up problems associated with HPV DNA testing and reveals that a triage test is needed to prevent excessive referrals of women to limited colposcopy services.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Methylomics analysis identifies epigenetically silenced genes and implies an activation of β-catenin signaling in cervical cancer (pages 117–127)

      Yu-Chih Chen, Rui-Lan Huang, Yung-Kai Huang, Yu-Ping Liao, Po-Hsuan Su, Hui-Chen Wang, Cheng-Chang Chang, Ya-Wen Lin, Mu-Hsien Yu, Tang-Yuan Chu and Hung-Cheng Lai

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28658

      What's New?

      The identification of novel genes that are hypermethylated in cancer and precancerous lesions is needed in order to achieve a better sensitivity and specificity in cervical cancer screening. Using a genome-wide approach, here the authors identified 14 genes that were frequently hypermethylated in CIN3+ and might thus become useful biomarkers in future molecular cervical cancer screening. A bioinformatics function analysis revealed that five of these genes were potentially implicated in β-catenin signaling, suggesting the epigenetic dysregulation of Wnt signaling during cervical cancer development. The concurrent hypermethylation of multiple genes also suggests the involvement of a CpG island methylator phenotype.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Analysis of 320 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors identifies TS expression as independent biomarker for survival (pages 128–137)

      Hye Seung Lee, Min Chen, Ji Hun Kim, Woo Ho Kim, Soyeon Ahn, Kyungah Maeng, Carmen J. Allegra, Frederic J. Kaye, Steven N. Hochwald and Maria Zajac-Kaye

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28675

      What's new?

      The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) plays an essential role in cell proliferation. It may also promote tumorigenesis when overexpressed. In this study, the authors examined a large number of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and found that increased expression of TS was strongly associated with aggressive disease and early death. These results support the role of TS as a cancer-promoting agent in GEP-NET, and indicate that TS is a promising prognostic biomarker for these tumors. In addition, the authors found that p18 expression may predict survival in TS-positive patients who receive chemotherapy.

  8. Epidemiology

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men (pages 138–148)

      Linda Kachuri, Paul J. Villeneuve, Marie-Élise Parent, Kenneth C. Johnson, the Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Group and Shelley A. Harris

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28629

      What's new?

      Crystalline silica is one of the most prevalent occupational exposures worldwide, and is known to cause silicosis. In this study, the authors investigated whether low levels of exposure to silica dust may lead to an increase in the incidence of lung-cancer. Their study also examined whether cigarette smoking modifies association between silica exposure and lung cancer risk. The findings of this study suggest that occupational exposure to silica is indeed a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking or other lung carcinogens. The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model for both factors.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and the risk of skin cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis (pages 149–156)

      Sophie E. Noel, Adam C.S. Stoneham, Catherine M. Olsen, Lesley E. Rhodes and Adele C. Green

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28630

      What's new?

      Current strategies in the prevention of skin cancers remain limited, although experimental studies suggest that diet, specifically omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), may modulate carcinogenesis. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates, however, that no association exists between dietary n-3 PUFAs and basal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, while the data suggests that n-3 PUFAs may be inversely associated with melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the relationships either are based on scant data or are nonsignificant. The results indicate that existing evidence is inadequate to support the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect against skin malignancy.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Incident cancer risk after the start of aspirin use: Results from a Dutch population-based cohort study of low dose aspirin users (pages 157–165)

      Loes M. Hollestein, Myrthe P.P. van Herk-Sukel, Rikje Ruiter, Esther de Vries, Ron H.J. Mathijssen, Erik A.C. Wiemer, Theo Stijnen, Jan-Willem W. Coebergh, Valery E.P.P. Lemmens, Ron M.C. Herings, Bruno H.C. Stricker and Tamar Nijsten

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28634

      What's new?

      Observational studies and long-term follow-up studies of randomized controlled trials on cardiovascular events suggest that low-dose aspirin use may prevent cancer. Detailed data on dose, frequency, and duration of aspirin use during follow-up and cancer-specific risk estimates are needed. This study analyzed the association between duration of low-dose aspirin use (≤ 100 mg daily) and cancer, using information on both aspirin exposure and incidence of cancer from >100,000 aspirin users in the Dutch general population over 12 years. Duration of low-dose aspirin use was not associated with a decreased risk of any of the site-specific cancers or cancer in general.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Is HPV DNA testing specificity comparable to that of cytological testing in primary cervical cancer screening? Results of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (pages 166–177)

      Claudia Pileggi, Domenico Flotta, Aida Bianco, Carmelo G.A. Nobile and Maria Pavia

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28640

      What's new?

      Primary cervical cancer screening with DNA testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) may be possible, though it is limited by lower specificity relative to traditional cytology tests. Here, meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials shows an overlapping specificity between HPV testing alone and cytology testing alone in women aged 30 years and older. The results provide methodological support for the indication of using HPV DNA testing in primary screening in this group of women.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality: 18-Year postintervention follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (pages 178–185)

      Jarmo Virtamo, Phil R. Taylor, Jukka Kontto, Satu Männistö, Meri Utriainen, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Jussi Huttunen and Demetrius Albanes

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28641

      What's new?

      The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, begun in the mid-1980s, found that daily α-tocopherol supplementation decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer in Finnish male smokers. In the present study, a post-trial follow-up, neither α-tocopherol nor β-carotene were found to have significant effects on cancer incidence. The reduced risk of prostate cancer lasted about 8 years post-trial and was accompanied by decreased 18-year post-trial mortality from prostate cancer. BMI may modify the effect of α-tocopherol on prostate cancer, such that risk is decreased in overweight men but increased in obese men.

    6. You have free access to this content
      Associations of reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk: A report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (pages 186–195)

      Zhezhou Huang, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Yu-Tang Gao, Ying Zheng, Qi Dai, Wei Lu, Wei Zheng and Xiao-Ou Shu

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28644

      What's new?

      Early age at menarche and first live birth have been reported to be associated with decreased breast cancer risk by numerous studies; however, associations of other reproductive events and intervals is less clear, especially among Asian women. This large population-based case-control study is the first to comprehensively examine associations of reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk among parous women, and is one of only a few such studies among Chinese women. Findings include that in addition to later age at first live birth, later age at first pregnancy, later age at last pregnancy, and longer intervals from menarche to either first live birth or last live birth were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Further, these associations were found to vary by menopausal status and hormone-receptor status. Notably, the significance of all associations was attenuated when adjusted included age at first birth, possibly due to its high correlation with other reproductive events and intervals.

    7. You have free access to this content
      A comparison of relative and cause-specific survival by cancer site, age and time since diagnosis (pages 196–203)

      Katrine Damgaard Skyrud, Freddie Bray and Bjørn Møller

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28645

      What's new?

      Two measures commonly used to estimate the average prognosis of cancer patients at the population level are cause-specific survival (CCS) and relative survival (RS) estimates. RS estimates are widely used by cancer registries because the accuracy of the cause of death obtained from death certificates has long been called into question. The aim of this study was to compare CSS and RS estimates for different cancer sites, age groups, and time lengths since diagnosis. When evaluated against RS, CSS was reliable for most of the cancer sites. CSS may however not be recommended for rare cancers and patients over 85.

    8. You have free access to this content
      Divergent coverage, frequency and costs of organised and opportunistic Pap testing in Finland (pages 204–213)

      Heini Salo, Pekka Nieminen, Terhi Kilpi, Kari Auranen, Tuija Leino, Simopekka Vänskä, Petri Tiihonen, Matti Lehtinen and Ahti Anttila

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28646

      What's new?

      Finland is renowned for its performance and effectiveness in organised cervical cancer screening but the magnitude and significance of opportunistic Pap testing remains unknown. Here, overall coverage and costs of organised screening and opportunistic Pap testing in Finland were estimated using nationwide registry data. Of annual screening tests, 55% were found to be taken as opportunistic tests in public primary or student health care, accounting for as much as 71% of total screening costs. The findings shed light on the development of cost-effective HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening strategies.

  9. Cancer Therapy

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Effect of combined treatment with the epirubicin-incorporating micelles (NC-6300) and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane platinum (II)-incorporating micelles (NC-4016) on a human gastric cancer model (pages 214–223)

      Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Ichinosuke Hyodo, Misato Takigahira, Yoshikatsu Koga, Masahiro Yasunaga, Mitsunori Harada, Tatsuyuki Hayashi, Yasuki Kato and Yasuhiro Matsumura

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28651

      What's new?

      Combination chemotherapy is sometimes associated with serious adverse effects that lead to treatment cessation. The combined use of anticancer agent-incorporating polymeric micelles–which enable anticancer agents to exert potent antitumor effects while decreasing the toxicity of the drug payload–may overcome this drawback. Reports of combined use of micellar anti-cancer agents are scarce, however. The present study showed that the combination of epirubicin- and DACHP-incorporating polymeric micelles had a stronger antitumor effect and lower toxicity in gastric cancer xenografts than combined epirubicin and oxaliplatin. These results warrant the conduct of clinical trials of combination treatments with anticancer agent-incorporating micelles.

    2. You have free access to this content
      High-level ERBB2 gene amplification is associated with a particularly short time-to-metastasis, but results in a high rate of complete response once trastuzumab-based therapy is offered in the metastatic setting (pages 224–231)

      Eva-Maria Fuchs, Wolfgang J. Köstler, Reinhard Horvat, Gernot Hudelist, Ernst Kubista, Johannes Attems, Christoph C. Zielinski and Christian F. Singer

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28660

      What's New?

      While a cut-off for HER2/ERBB2 overexpression had been well established in breast cancer prognosis, little is known about the biological behavior of tumors with very high levels of ERBB2 gene amplification. Here, ERBB2 copy number amplifications and ERBB2/centromer17 ratio were investigated in archived tumor samples of breast cancer patients with metastatic lesions who received trastuzumab-based treatment. The findings indicate that tumors with high ERBB2 copy numbers are particularly aggressive in the absence of trastuzumab but respond well to trastuzumab-based therapy in the metastatic setting.

  10. Short Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      CXCR2 inhibition enhances sulindac-mediated suppression of colon cancer development (pages 232–237)

      Yong Suk Lee, Dongwon Choi, Nam Yoon Kim, Sara Yang, Eunson Jung, Mingu Hong, Dongyun Yang, Heinz-Josef Lenz and Young-Kwon Hong

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28668

      What's new?

      While sulindac has been approved as a preventive approach against colon cancer, low-dose alternatives are being sought due to its severe toxicity. Using mouse models, here the authors defined the contribution of IL-8 and CXCR2 to intestinal adenoma development induced by an APC gene mutation and showed that adenoma formation was suppressed by a single copy deletion of CXCR2 gene but promoted by ectopic expression of IL-8. Moreover, CXCR2 inhibition enhanced the efficacy of sulindac. Together, this study provided an in vivo therapeutic validation for inhibiting the IL-8/CXCR2 pathway in combination with sulindac for treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Anticoagulant medication at time of needle biopsy for breast cancer in relation to risk of lymph node metastasis (pages 238–241)

      Rickard Ljung, Roland Sennerstam, Fredrik Mattsson, Gert Auer and Jesper Lagergren

      Version of Record online: 31 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28671

      What's new?

      Diagnostic needle biopsy carries a risk of tumor spread, particularly for tumors with unstable genomes. It has been postulated, however, that anticoagulant treatment may reduce cancer cell dissemination via needle biopsy. Here, in a large breast cancer cohort, a nonsignificant decrease in risk of lymph node metastasis was observed among users of anticoagulant treatment. However, factors such as relatively poor baseline health among anticoagulant users may mask a true negative association. Thus, the study may lend some support to the idea that tumor spread might be counteracted by anticoagulants at the time of needle biopsy.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated RasGAP fragment, inhibits breast cancer metastatic progression (pages 242–247)

      David Barras, Girieca Lorusso, Benoît Lhermitte, David Viertl, Curzio Rüegg and Christian Widmann

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28674

      What's new?

      Cancer's ability to spread all over the body is what makes it most deadly, but metastasis remains a tough problem to solve. Researchers are scrutinizing the molecular changes that allow a cancer cell to break away from a tumor and colonize another part of the body, and one key player is the Ras protein family, which in turn can be stifled by proteins called RasGAPs. In this paper, the authors investigated a caspase-3-generated fragment of one of the RasGAPs (p120 RasGAP), already known to sensitize cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs. They found that this fragment, called N2, can also halt metastasis. These results suggest that activation of caspase-3, which creates the fragment, could help kill off tumors and prevent metastasis.

  11. Letters to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Mini Review
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Cancer Cell Biology
    5. Cancer Genetics
    6. Infectious Causes of Cancer
    7. Tumor Immunology
    8. Early Detection and Diagnosis
    9. Epidemiology
    10. Cancer Therapy
    11. Short Reports
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION