Phenomenology, psychopathology, and short-term therapeutic outcome of 102 infants aged 0 to 12 months consecutively referred to a community-based 0 to 3 mental health clinic



Infants ages 0 to 1 year consecutively referred for psychiatric treatment during the year 2005 were followed, and variables associated with diagnosis and short-term outcome were assessed. Infants were evaluated using the Psychiatric Infant Navigator Chart and Evaluation that includes nosological diagnoses [Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, (DC 0–3), Zero to Three, 1994] as well as risk and protective factors, treatment procedure, and outcomes. Seventy-six percent of the infants had an Axis I diagnosis, with anxiety disorders and a mixed disorder of emotional expressiveness being the most frequent. Twenty-five percent had an Axis II diagnosis. Multiple correspondence analyses showed that two dimensions corresponding grossly to DC 0–3 Axes I and II emerged. They emphasized three clinical profiles characterized by (a) good infant functioning, parent's awareness of their own difficulties, and a good outcome; (b) moderate child symptoms, overinvolved relating, and a good/intermediate outcome; (c) severe child symptoms, underinvolved relating, and a less favorable short-term outcome, signaling the risk for developmental disorders. Among the associated risk factors were cumulative parental stress, maternal psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Clinical implications of these findings indicated that infants under the age of 1 year who are referred for mental health evaluation and intervention are a heterogeneous group in terms of both severity and prognosis. Clinicians should differentiate subgroups of young children to detect those infants at risk for persistent psychopathology.