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ABSTRACT

This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems.

RESUMEN

Esta Edición Especial incluye artículos que contribuyen a 1) la base de la investigación global que concierne al desarrollo de niños pequeños e infantes bajo riesgo, primariamente aquellos que se encuentran bajo el cuidado de una institución en países de bajos recursos, 2) las intervenciones en las instituciones y el promover en las familias alternativas a la institucionalización, y 3) tratar de crear sistemas modernos de bienestar infantil que enfaticen el cuidado familiar en estados y países enteros. Esta introducción coloca estos artículos dentro contextos más amplios en las literaturas de estos tres dominios de interés.

RÉSUMÉ

Ce numéro spécial comprend des articles qui contribuent à 1) une base de recherches globale ayant trait au développement des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants à risque, surtout ceux qui sont placés en institutions dans des pays n'ayant que de faibles resources, 2) des interventions en institutions et pour promouvoir des alternatives familiales à l'institutionnalisation en orphelinat, et 3) les tentatives pour créer des systèmes modernes de soutien à l'enfance et mettant l'accent sur le soin à la famille dans des états et des pays entiers. Cette introduction replace ces articles dans les contextes plus grand des recherches dans ces trois domaines d'intérêt.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Diese Sonderausgabe enthält Artikel, die einen Beitrag leisten 1) zur globalen Grundlagenforschung in Bezug auf die Entwicklung von gefährdeten Säuglingen und Kleinkindern, vor allem von denjenigen, die in Ländern mit begrenzten Ressourcen institutionalisiert sind, 2) für Interventionen in Institutionen und für die Förderung von Familienalternativen statt Institutionalisierung und 3) die Sonderausgabe versucht moderne Kinderschutzsysteme zu schaffen, indem die Familienpflege in allen Staaten und Ländern betont wird. Diese Einführung setzt die Artikel in den Kontext der zu diesen drei Interessensgebieten vorliegenden Literatur.

ABSTRACT

This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to 1) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower-resource countries,

抄録:この特集号には、以下の領域に貢献する論文が含まれる 1) 危険にさらされている乳幼児の発達に関する地球規模の研究基盤、主として資源の少ない国々の施設に入所している乳幼児について、 2 施設における介入と、施設入所にかわる家族代理を推進すること、そして 3) すべての州と国全体に、家族的養護を強調する近代的な児童福祉システムを作り出す試み。この序文は、これらの論文を、これらの3つの興味の領域の文献のより幅広いコンテクストに位置づける。