• 1
    Arribas, J. C., Herrero, A. G., Martin-Lomas, M., Canada, F. J., He, S., et al. (2000) Differential mechanism-based labeling and unequivocal activity assignment of the two active sites of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase. Eur. J. Biochem. 267, 69967005.
  • 2
    Swallow, D. M. (2003) Genetic influences on carbohydrate digestion. Nutr. Res. Rev. 16, 3743.
  • 3
    Day, A. J., Canada, F. J., Diaz, J.C., Kroon, P. A., McLauchlan, R., et al. (2000) Dietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase. FEBS Lett. 468, 166170.
  • 4
    Mackey, A. D., Henderson, G. N., and Gregory, J. F. III. (2002) Enzymatic hydrolysis of pyridoxine-5′-beta-d-glucoside is catalyzed by intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 2685826864.
  • 5
    Jager, A. K. and Saaby, L. (2011) Flavonoids and the CNS. Molecules 16, 14711485.
  • 6
    Troelsen, J. T. (2005) Adult-type hypolactasia and regulation of lactase expression. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723, 1932.
  • 7
    Itan, Y., Jones, B. L., Ingram, C. J., Swallow, D. M., and Thomas, M. G. (2010) A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes. BMC Evol. Biol. 10, 36.
  • 8
    Holden, C. and Mace, R. (1997) Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults. Hum. Biol. 69, 605628.
  • 9
    Simoons, F.J. (1970) Primary adult lactose intolerance and the milking habit: a problem in biologic and cultural interrelations. II. A culture historical hypothesis. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 15, 695710.
  • 10
    Pinhasi, R., Fort, J., and Ammerman, A. J. (2005) Tracing the origin and spread of agriculture in Europe. PLoS Biol. 3, e410.
  • 11
    Vigne, J. D. (2008) Zooarchaeological aspects of the Neolithic diet transition in the Near East and Europe, and their putative relationships with the Neolithic demographic transition. In The Neolithic Demographic Transition and its Consequences. (Bocquet-Appel, J. P. and Bar-Yosef, O., eds.) pp. 179205, Springer, Netherlands.
  • 12
    Zeder, M. A. (2008) Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: origins, diffusion, and impact. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1159711604.
  • 13
    Fuller, D. Q., van Etten, J., Manning, K., Castillo, C., Kingwell-Banham, E., et al. (2011) The contribution of rice agriculture and livestock pastoralism to prehistoric methane levels: An archaeological assessment. The Holocene 21, 743759.
  • 14
    Vigne, J. D., Carrère, I., and Guilaine, J. (2001) Unstable status or early domestic Ungulates in the Near East: the example of Shillourokambos (Cyprus, IX-VIIIth millenia cal. B.C.). In Actes du Colloque International Organisé par le Département des Antiquités de Chypre et l'Ecole Française d'Athènes. Nicosia (Cyprus), Suppl 43, pp. 239251.
  • 15
    Balasse, M. and Tresset, A. (2002) Early weaning of Neolithic domestic cattle (Bercy, France) revealed by intra-tooth variation in nitrogen isotope ratios. J. Archaeol. Sci. 29, 853859.
  • 16
    Helmer, D., Gourichon, L. L., and Vila, E. (2007) The development of the exploitation of products from Capra and Ovis (meat, milk and fleece) from the PPNB to the Early Bronze in the northern Near East (8700 to 2000 BC cal.). Anthropozoologica 42, 4169.
  • 17
    Craig, O., Mulville, J., Pearson, M. P., Sokol, R., Gelsthorpe, K., et al. (2000) Detecting milk proteins in ancient pots. Nature 408, 312.
  • 18
    Dudd, S. N. and Evershed, R. P. (1998) Direct demonstration of milk as an element of archaeological economies. Science 282, 14781481.
  • 19
    Evershed, R. P. (2008) Experimental approaches to the interpretation of absorbed organic residues in archaeological ceramics. World Archaeol. 40, 2647.
  • 20
    Copley, M. S., Berstan, R., Dudd, S. N., Docherty, G., Mukherjee, A. J., et al. (2003) Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in prehistoric Britain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, 15241529.
  • 21
    Dunne, J., Evershed, R. P., Salque, M., Cramp, L., Bruni, S., et al. (2012) First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium BC. Nature 486, 390394.
  • 22
    Evershed, R. P., Payne, S., Sherratt, A. G., Copley, M. S., Coolidge, J., et al. (2008) Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding. Nature 455, 528531.
  • 23
    Craig, O. E., Chapman, J., Heron, C., Willis, L. H., Bartosiewicz, L., et al. (2005) Did the first farmers of central and eastern Europe produce dairy foods? Antiquity 79, 882894.
  • 24
    Copley, M. S., Berstan, R., Mukherjee, A. J., Dudd, S. N., Straker, V., et al. (2005) Dairying in Antiquity III. Evidence from absorbed lipid residues dating to the British Neolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 523546.
  • 25
    Craig, O. E., Steele, V. J., Fischer, A., Hartz, S., Andersen, S. H., et al. (2011) Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 1791017915.
  • 26
    Salque, M., Bogucki, P. I., Pyzel, J., Sobkowiak-Tabaka, I., Grygiel, R., et al. (2013) Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe. Nature 493, 522525.
  • 27
    Ferguson, A. and Maxwell, J. D. (1967) Genetic aetiology of lactose intolerance. Lancet 2, 188190.
  • 28
    Sahi, T. (1974) The inheritance of selective adult-type lactose malabsorption. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 30, 173.
  • 29
    Swallow, D. M. and Hollox, E. J. (2000) The genetic polymorphism of intestinal lactase activity in adult humans. In The Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. (Scriver, C. R., et al., eds.). pp. 16511662, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • 30
    Enattah, N. S., Sahi, T., Savilahti, E., Terwilliger, J. D., Peltonen, L., et al. (2002) Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Nat. Genet. 30, 233237.
  • 31
    Ingram, C. J., et al. (2007) A novel polymorphism associated with lactose tolerance in Africa: multiple causes for lactase persistence? Hum. Genet. 120, 779788.
  • 32
    Enattah N. S., Sahi T, Savilahti E, Terwilliger J. D., Peltonen L., et al. 2002. Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Nat Genet 30: 233-237.
  • 33
    Tishkoff, S. A., Reed, F. A., Ranciaro, A., Voight, B. F., Babbitt, C. C., et al. (2007) Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nat. Genet. 39, 3140.
  • 34
    Imtiaz, F., Savilahti, E., Sarnesto, A., Trabzuni, D., Al-Kahtani, K., et al. (2007) The T/G 13915 variant upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) is the founder allele of lactase persistence in an urban Saudi population. J. Med. Genet. 44, e89.
  • 35
    Jones, B. L., Raga, T. O., Liebert, A., Zmarz, P., Bekele, E., et al. (2013) Diversity of lactase persistence alleles in ethiopia: Signature of a soft selective sweep. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 93, 538544.
  • 36
    Lewinsky, R. H., Jensen, T. G., Moller, J., Stensballe, A., Olsen, J., et al. (2005) T-13910 DNA variant associated with lactase persistence interacts with Oct-1 and stimulates lactase promoter activity in vitro. Hum. Mol. Genet. 14, 39453953.
  • 37
    Olds, L. C. and Sibley, E. (2003) Lactase persistence DNA variant enhances lactase promoter activity in vitro: functional role as a cis regulatory element. Hum. Mol. Genet. 12, 23332340.
  • 38
    Troelsen, J. T., Olsen, J., Moller, J., and Sjostrom, H. (2003) An upstream polymorphism associated with lactase persistence has increased enhancer activity. Gastroenterology 125, 16861694.
  • 39
    Jensen, T. G., Liebert, A., Lewinsky, R., Swallow, D. M., Olsen, J., et al. (2011) The -14010*C variant associated with lactase persistence is located between an Oct-1 and HNF1alpha binding site and increases lactase promoter activity. Hum. Genet. 130, 483493.
  • 40
    Fang, L., Ahn, J. K., Wodziak, D., and Sibley, E. (2012) The human lactase persistence-associated SNP -13910*T enables in vivo functional persistence of lactase promoter-reporter transgene expression. Hum. Genet. 131, 11531159.
  • 41
    Malmström, H., Linderholm, A., Liden, K., Stora, J., Molnar, P., et al. (2010) High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe. BMC Evol. Biol. 10, 89.
  • 42
    Plantinga, T. S., Alonso, S., Izagirre, N., Hervella, M., Fregel, R., et al. (2012) Low prevalence of lactase persistence in Neolithic South-West Europe. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 20, 778782.
  • 43
    Burger, J., Kirchner, M., Bramanti, B., Haak, W., and Thomas, M. G. (2007) Absence of the lactase-persistence-associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 104, 37363741.
  • 44
    Lacan, M., Keyser, C., Ricaut, F. X., Brucato, N., Duranthon, F., et al. (2011) Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 108, 97889791.
  • 45
    Lacan, M., Keyser, C., Ricaut, F. X., Brucato, N., Tarrus, J., et al. (2011) Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 108, 1825518259.
  • 46
    Nagy, D., Bogacsi-Szabo, E., Varkonyi, A., Csanyi, B., Czibula, A., et al. (2009) Prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia as diagnosed with genetic and lactose hydrogen breath tests in Hungarians. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 63, 909912.
  • 47
    Bersaglieri, T., Sabeti, P. C., Patterson, N., Vanderploeg, T., Schaffner, S. F., et al. (2004) Genetic signatures of strong recent positive selection at the lactase gene. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74, 11111120.
  • 48
    Coelho, M., Luiselli, D., Bertorelle, G., Lopes, A. I., Seixas, S., et al. (2005) Microsatellite variation and evolution of human lactase persistence. Hum. Genet. 117, 329339.
  • 49
    Mulcare, C. A. (2006) The evolution of the lactase persistence phenotype. In Genetic, Evolution and Environment (UCL, eds.). University of London, London.
  • 50
    Voight, B. F., Kudaravalli, S., Wen, X., and Pritchard, J. K. (2006) A map of recent positive selection in the human genome. PLoS Biol. 4, e72.
  • 51
    Sabeti, P. C., Schaffner, S. F., Fry, B., Lohmueller, J., Varilly, P., et al. (2006) Positive natural selection in the human lineage. Science 312, 16141620.
  • 52
    Schlebusch, C. M., Sjodin, P., Skoglund, P., and Jakobsson, M. (2012) Stronger signal of recent selection for lactase persistence in Maasai than in Europeans. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 21, 550553.
  • 53
    Hofer, T., Foll, M., and Excoffier, L. (2012) Evolutionary forces shaping genomic islands of population differentiation in humans. BMC Genomics 13, 107.
  • 54
    Akey, J. M., Zhang, G., Zhang, K., Jin, L., and Shriver, M. D. (2002) Interrogating a high-density SNP map for signatures of natural selection. Genome. Res. 12, 18051814.
  • 55
    Gerbault, P., Moret, C., Currat, M., and Sanchez-Mazas, A. (2009) Impact of selection and demography on the diffusion of lactase persistence. PLoS ONE 4, e6369.
  • 56
    Itan, Y., Powell, A., Beaumont, M. A., Burger, J., and Thomas, M. G. (2009) The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000491.
  • 57
    Gerbault, P., Liebert, A., Itan, Y., Powell, A., Currat, M., et al. (2011) Evolution of lactase persistence: An example of human niche construction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 366, 863877.
  • 58
    Nemeth, K., Plumb, G. W., Berrin, J. G., Juge, N., Jacob, R., et al. (2003) Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell beta-glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur. J. Nutr. 42, 2942.
  • 59
    Day, A. J., DuPont, M. S., Ridley, S., Rhodes, M., Rhodes, M. J., et al. (1998) Deglycosylation of flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides by human small intestine and liver beta-glucosidase activity. FEBS Lett. 436, 7175.
  • 60
    Flatz, G. and Rotthauwe, H. W. (1977) The human lactase polymorphism: physiology and genetics of lactose absorption and malabsorption. Prog. Med. Genet. 2, 205249.
  • 61
    Hancock, A. M., Witonsky, D. B., Ehler, E., Alkorta-Aranburu, G., Beall, C., et al. (2010) Colloquium paper: human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 107(Suppl) 2, 89248930.
  • 62
    Durham, W. H. (1991) The relationship of genes and culture. In Coevolution: Genes, Culture and Human Diversity. pp. 154225, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
  • 63
    Laland, K. N., Odling-Smee, J., and Myles, S. (2010) How culture shaped the human genome: bringing genetics and the human sciences together. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11, 137148.
  • 64
    Richards, M. P. (2002) A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic subsistence. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 12701278.
  • 65
    Losch, S., Grupe, G., and Peters, J. (2006) Stable isotopes and dietary adaptations in humans and animals at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Nevali Cori, Southeast Anatolia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 131, 181193.
  • 66
    Bogucki, P. I. (1984) Ceramic sieves of the linear pottery culture and their economic implications Oxf. J. Archaeol. 3, 1530.
  • 67
    Balasse, M. and Tresset, A. (2007) Environmental constraints on the reproductive activity of domestic sheep and cattle: what latitude for the herder? Anthropozoologica 42, 7188.
  • 68
    Shennan, S., Downey, S. S., Timpson, A., Edinborough, K., Colledge, S., et al. (2013) Regional population collapse followed initial agriculture booms in mid-Holocene Europe. Nat. Commun. 4, 2486.
  • 69
    Beaumont, M. A., Zhang, W., and Balding, D. J. (2002) Approximate Bayesian computation in population genetics. Genetics 162, 20252035.
  • 70
    Marjoram, P. and Tavare, S. (2006) Modern computational approaches for analysing molecular genetic variation data. Nat. Rev. Genet. 7, 759770.
  • 71
    Benecke, N. (1994) Der Mensch und seine Haustiere. Die Geschichte einer jahrtausendealten Beziehung. Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • 72
    Ingram, C. J., Mulcare, C. A., Itan, Y., Thomas, M. G., and Swallow, D. M. (2009) Lactose digestion and the evolutionary genetics of lactase persistence. Hum. Genet. 124, 579591.
  • 73
    Anagnostou, P., Battaggia, C., Coia, V., Capelli, C., Fabbri, C., et al. (2009) Tracing the distribution and evolution of lactase persistence in Southern Europe through the study of the T(-13910) variant. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 21, 217219.
  • 74
    Coelho, M., Sequeira, F., Luiselli, D., Beleza, S., and Rocha, J. (2009) On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola. BMC Evol. Biol. 9, 80.
  • 75
    Sun, H. M., Qiao, Y. D., Chen, F., Xu, L. D., Bai, J., et al. (2007) The lactase gene -13910T allele can not predict the lactase-persistence phenotype in north China. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 16, 598601.
  • 76
    Torniainen, S., Parker, M. I., Holmberg, V., Lahtela, E., Dandara, C., et al. (2009) Screening of variants for lactase persistence/non-persistence in populations from South Africa and Ghana. BMC Genet. 10, 31.
  • 77
    Berstan, R., Stott, A. W., Minnitt, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Hedges, R. E. M., et al. (2008) Direct dating of pottery from its organic residues: new precision using compound-specific carbon isotopes. Antiquity 82, 702713.
  • 78
    Mirabaud, S., Rolando, C., and Regert, M. (2007) Molecular criteria for discriminating adipose fat and milk from different species by nanoESI MS and MS/MS of their triacylglycerols: application to archaeological remains. Anal. Chem. 79, 61826192.
  • 79
    Spangenberg, J. E., Matuschik, I., Jacomet, S., and Schibler, J (2008) Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th mil. BC). IEHS 44, 189200.
  • 80
    Spangenberg, J. E., Jacomet, S., and Schibler, J. (2006) Chemical analyses of organic residues in archaeological pottery from Arbon Bleiche 3, Switzerland - evidence for dairying in the late Neolithic. JAS 33, 113.
  • 81
    Salque, M., Radi, G., Fabbri, C., Tagliacozzo, A., Pino Uria, B., et al. Erratum to: New insights into the early Neolithic economy and management of animals in Southern and Central Europe revealed using lipid residue analyses of pottery vessels. Anthropozoologica in press.
  • 82
    Salque, M., Radi, G., Tagliacozzo, A., Pino Uria, B., Wolfram, S., et al. (2012) New insights into the early Neolithic economy and management of animals in Southern and Central Europe revealed using lipid residue analyses of pottery vessels. Anthropozoologica 47, 4561.
  • 83
    Šoberl, L., Žibrat Gašparič, A., Budja, M., and Evershed, R. P. (2008) Early herding practices revealed through organic residue analysis of pottery from the early Neolithic rock shelter of Mala Triglavca, Slovenia. Documenta Praehistorica XXXV, 253260.
  • 84
    Gregg, M. W., Banning, E. B., Gibbs, K., and Slater, G. F. (2009) Subsistence practices and pottery use in Neolithic Jordan: Molecular and isotopic evidence. JAS 36, 937946.
  • 85
    Copley, M. S., Berstan, R., Dudd, S. N., Aillaud, S., Mukherjee, A. J., et al. (2005) Processing of milk products in pottery vessels through British prehistory. Antiquity 79, 895908.