• 1
    Bray GA, Krai JG, Björntorp P., Na, Hepatic K. Dependent ATPase in obesity. N Eng J Med 1981; 304: 15801582.
  • 2
    Bray GA, York DA, Yukimura Y. Activity of (Na+ and K+)-ATPase in the liver of animals with experimental obesity. Life Sci 1978;22: 16371642.
  • 3
    Bukowiecki L., Collet AJ, Folléa N., Guay G., Jahjah L. Brown adipose tissue hyperplasia: a fundamental mechanism of adaptation to cold and hyperphagia. Am J Physiol 1982;242: E353E359.
  • 4
    Charalambous BEM, Morgan K., Spurlock G., Mir MA. Erythrocyte sodium potassium pump activity in human obesity. Clin Chem Acta 1984;141: 179187.
  • 5
    Cui J., Himms-Hagen J. Long term decrease in body fat and in brown adipose tissue in capsaicin-desensitized rats. Am J Physiol 1992; 262: R568R573.
  • 6
    Cunningham J., Calles J., Eislkowitz L., Zawalich W., Felig P. Increased efficiency of weight gain and altered cellularity of brown adipose tissue in rats with impaired glucose tolerance during diet-induced overeating. Diabetes 1983;32: 10231027.
  • 7
    Danforth E. Hormonal adaptations to energy balance and imbalance and the regulation of energy expenditure. In: Lardy H., Stratman H., eds. Hormones, thermogenesis and obesity. New York: Elsevier; 1989: 1931.
  • 8
    DeLuise M., Blackburn GL, Flier JS. Reduced activity of the red cell sodium-potassium pump in human obesity. N Eng J Med 1980;303: 10171022.
  • 9
    Desautels M., Zaror-Behrens G., Himms-Hagen J. Increased purine nucleotide binding, altered polypeptide composition, and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue of cold acclimated rats. Can J Biochem 1978;56: 378383.
  • 10
    Diack SL. The determination of the surface area of the white rat. J Nutr 1930;3: 289296.
  • 11
    Downs TR, Wilfinger WW. Fluorometric quantification of DNA in cells and tissue. Anal Biochem 1983; 131: 538547.
  • 12
    Flatt JP. The biochemistry of energy expenditure. In: Bray GA ed. Recent advances in obesity research. London: Newman; 1978: 211228.
  • 13
    Grinstein S., Goetz JD, Rothstein A.. 22Na fluxes in thymic lymphocytes. lNa/Na and Na/H exchange through an amiloride sensitive pathway. J Gen Physiol 1984; 84: 565584.
  • 14
    Harper ME, Himms-Hagen J., Patrick J. Diet-induced obesity and Na,K transport in erythrocytes and thymocytes of Sprague Dawley rats. Nutr Res 1991;11: 375384.
  • 15
    Hill JO, DiGirolamo M. Preferential loss of body fat during starvation in dietary obese rats. Life Sci 1991;49: 19071914.
  • 16
    Hill JO, Dorton J., Sykes MN, DiGirolamo M. Reversal of dietary obesity is influenced by its duration and severity. Int J Obesity 1989; 13: 711722.
  • 17
    Himms-Hagen J. Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue as an energy buffer. N Eng J Med 1984;311: 15491558.
  • 18
    Himms-Hagen J. Brown adipose tissue and cold acclimation. In: Trayhum P., Nicholls DG, eds. Brown adipose tissue. London: Edward Arnold; 1986: 214268.
  • 19
    Himms-Hagen J. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and obesity. Prog Lipid Res 1989;28: 67115.
  • 20
    Himms-Hagen J. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: role in thermoregulation, energy regulation and obesity. In: Schönbaum E., Lomax P., eds. Thermoregulation: physiology and biochemistry. New York: Pergamon; 1990;327414.
  • 21
    Himms-Hagen J., Cui J. Diet-induced obesity and brown adipose tissue. In: Romsos DR, Himms-Hagen J., Suzuki M., eds. Obesity: dietary factors and control. Basel: Karger; 1991: 8195.
  • 22
    Hogan S., Sullivan AC, Triscari J. Oxygen uptake and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of growing rats during development of dietary obesity. Int J Obesity 1985;9: A43.
  • 23
    Hogan S., Sullivan AC, Triscari J. Oxygen uptake (VO2) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in older rats resistant to development of dietary obesity. Int J Obesity 1985;9: A44.
  • 24
    Ismail-Beigi F., Bissell F., Edelman IS. Thyroid thermogenesis in adult rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture. J Gen Physiol 1979;73: 369383.
  • 25
    Lean MEJ, Branch WJ, James WPT, Jennings G., Ashwell M. Measurement of rat brown-adipose tissue mitochondrial uncoupling protein by radioimmunoassay: increased concentration after cold acclimation. Biosci Rep 1983;3: 6171.
  • 26
    Levin BE, Finnegan M., Triscari J., Sullivan AC. Brown adipose and metabolic features of chronic diet- induced obesity. Am J Physiol 1985;248: R717723.
  • 27
    Levin BE, Triscari J., Hogan S., Sullivan AC. Resistance to diet-induced obesity: food intake, pancreatic sympathetic tone, and insulin. Am J Physiol 1987;252: R471R478.
  • 28
    Levin BE, Triscari J., Marquet E., Sullivan AC. Dietary obesity and neonatal sympathectomy I. Effects on body composition and brown adipose. Am J Physiol 1984;247: R979R987.
  • 29
    Levin BE, Sullivan AC. Dietary obesity and neonatal sympathectomy II. Thermoregulation and brown adipose metabolism. Am J Physiol 1984;247: R988R994.
  • 30
    Levin BE, Triscari J., Sullivan AC. Altered sympathetic activity during development of diet-induced obesity in rats. Am J Physiol 1983;244: R347R355.
  • 31
    Levin BE, Triscari J., Sullivan AC. Metabolic features of diet-induced obesity without hyperphagia in young rats. Am J Physiol 1986;251: R433R440.
  • 32
    Lingrel JB, Orlowski J., Shull MM, Price EM. Molecular genetics of Na,K-ATPase. Prog Nucl Acid Res Molec Biol 1990;38: 3789.
  • 33
    Ma SWY, Foster DO. Brown adipose tissue, liver and diet-induced thermogenesis in cafeteria diet-fed rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1989;67: 376381.
  • 34
    Ma SWY, Nadeau BE, Foster DO. Evidence for liver as the major site of the diet-induced thermogenesis of rats fed a “cafeteria” diet. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1987;65: 18021804.
  • 35
    Mercer SW, Trayhurn P. Effect of high fat diets on energy balance and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue of lean and genetically obese ob/ob mice. J Nutr 1987;117: 21472153.
  • 36
    Milligan LP, McBride BW. Shifts in animal energy requirements across physiological and alimentational states: energy costs of ion pumping by animal tissues. J Nutr 1985;115: 13741382.
  • 37
    Mir MA, Charalambous BM, Morgan K., Evans PJ. Erythrocyte sodium-potassium-ATPase and sodium transport in obesity. N Eng J Med 1981;305: 12641268.
  • 38
    Murray GE, Patrick J. Effect of dietary fat on sodium transport and sodium, lithium countertransport in rat erythrocytes and thymocytes. J Nutr 1986;116: 13901394.
  • 39
    Norgan NG. Thermogenesis above maintenance in humans. Proc Nutr Soc 1990;49: 217226.
  • 40
    Pasquall R., Cesari MP, Melchionda N., Boschi S., Munarini A., Barbara L. Erythrocyte Na,K ATPase membrane activity in obese patients fed over a long term period with a very low calorie diet. Metabolism 1988;37: 8690.
  • 41
    Patrick J., Golden MHN. Leukocyte electrolyte and sodium transport in protein energy malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30: 14781481.
  • 42
    Rolls BJ, Rowe EA, Turner RC. Persistent obesity in rats following a period of consumption of a mixed, high energy diet. J Physiol 1980;298: 415427.
  • 43
    Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ. A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis. Nature 1979;281: 3135.
  • 44
    Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ, Warwick BP. Energy balance and brown fat activity in rats fed cafeteria diets or high fat semisynthetic diets at several levels of intake. Metabolism 1985;474480.
  • 45
    Schacterle G., Pollack R. A simplified method for the quantitation of small amounts of protein in biological material. Anal Biochem 1973;51: 654655.
  • 46
    Swann AC. Caloric intake and Na,K ATPase: differential regulation by alpha-one- and beta- noradrenergic receptors. Am J Physiol 1984: 247: R449R455.
  • 47
    Trayhurn P. Energy expenditure and thermogenesis: animal studies on brown adipose tissue. Int J Obesity 1990;14: 1729.
  • 48
    Trayhurn P., Milner RE. A commentary on the interpretation of in vitro measures of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1989;67: 811819.
  • 49
    Turaihi K., Baron DN, Dandona P. Increased leukocyte Na,K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss. Metabolism 1987;36: 851855.
  • 50
    A Vergroesen J., Gottenbos JJ. The role of fats in human nutrition: An introduction. In: Vergroesen AJ, ed. Role of fats in human nutrition. New York: Academic Press, 1975: 2415.
  • 51
    Wahle KWJ. Fatty acid modification and membrane lipids. Proc Nutr Soc 1983;42: 273287.
  • 52
    Willis JS, Golden MHN. Active and passive transport of sodium and potassium ions in erythrocytes of severely malnourished Jamaican children. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988;42: 635645.
  • 53
    Yonetani T., Ray GS. Studies on cytochrome oxidase. J Biol Chem 1965;240: 33923398.
  • 54
    Zhao M., Willis JS. Reduced ion transport in erythrocytes of male Sprague-Dawley rats during starvation. J Nutr 1988;118: 11201127.