• 1
    Banerji MA, Chaiken RL, Gordon D., Kral JG, Lebvitz HE. Does intra-abdominal adipose tissue in black men determine whether NIDDM is insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive Diabetes. 1995;44: 1416.
  • 2
    Conway JM, Yanovski SZ, Avila NA, Hubbard VS. Vis ceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995: 61: 76571.
  • 3
    Després JP, Nadeau A., Tremblay A., et al. Role of abdomi nal fat in the association between regional adipose tissue dis tribution and glucose tolerance in obese women. Diabetes. 1989;38: 3049.
  • 4
    Björntorp P. Portal adipose tissue as a generator of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Arteriosclerosis. 1990; 10: 4936.
  • 5
    Després JP. Obesity and lipid metabolism: relevance of body fat distribution. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1991;2: 515.
  • 6
    Després JP, Moorjani S., Lupien PJ, Tremblay A., Nadeau A., Bouchard C. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis. 1990; 10: 497511.
  • 7
    Després JP, Ross R., Lemieux S. Human Body Com position. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1996: 14966.
  • 8
    Fujioka S., Matsuzawa K., Tokonaga K., Tarui S. Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism. 1987;36: 549.
  • 9
    Grauer WO, Moss AA, Cann CE, Goldberg HI. Quantification of body fat distribution by computed tomography. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;39: 6317.
  • 10
    Marin P., Anderson B., Ottosson M., et al. The morphology and metabolism of intraabdominal adipose tissue in men. Me tabolism. 1992;41: 12428.
  • 11
    Pouliot MC, Després JP, Nadeau A., et al. Visceral obesity in men: association with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels. Diabetes. 1992;41: 82634.
  • 12
    Seidell JC, Bakker CJG, Van der Kooy K. Imaging tech niques for measuring adipose-tissue distribution—a comparison between computed tomography and 1. 5-T magnetic resonance. Am J Clin. Nutr. 1990: 51: 9537.
  • 13
    Seidell JC, Björntorp P., Sjöström L., Kvist H., Sannerstedt R. Visceral fat accumulation in men is positively associated with insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels, but negatively with testosterone levels. Metabolism. 1990;39: 897901.
  • 14
    Seidell, JC, Bouchard C. Visceral fat in relation to health: is it a major culprit or simply an innocent bystander Int J Obes. 1997;21: 62631.
  • 15
    Stallone DD, Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, Foster GD, Boorstein J., Arger P. Weight loss and body fat distribution: a feasibility study using computed tomography. Int J Obes. 1991;15: 77580.
  • 16
    Abate N., Burns D., Peshock RM, Garg A., Grundy SM. Estimation of adipose tissue mass by magnetic resonance im aging. J Lipid Res. 1994;35: 14906.
  • 17
    Fowler PA, Fuller MF, Glasbey CA. Total and subcutaneous adipose tissue in women: the measurement of distribution and accurate prediction of quantity by using magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54: 1825.
  • 18
    Van der Kooy K., Seidell JC. Techniques for the measurement of visceral fat: a practical guide. Int J Obes. 1993; 17: 18796.
  • 19
    Armellini F., Zamboni M., Castelli S., et al. Measured and predicted total and visceral adipose tissue in women. Corre lations with metabolic parameters. Inr J Obes. 1994: 18: 6417.
  • 20
    Ashwell M., Cole TJ, Dixon AK. Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography. Br Med J. 1985;290: 16924.
  • 21
    Després JP, Prudhomme D., Pouliot MC, Tremblay A., Bouchard C. Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 54: 4717.
  • 22
    Ferland M., Després JP, Tremblay A., et al. Assessment of adipose tissue distribution by computed axial tomography in obese women: association with body density and anthropo metric measurements. Br J Nutr. 1989;61: 13948.
  • 23
    Koester RS, Hunter GR, Snyder S., Khaled MA, Berland LL. Estimation of computerized tomography derived abdomi nal fat distribution. Int. J. Obes. 1992; 16: 54354.
  • 24
    Lemieux S., Prud'homme D., Tremblay A., Bouchard C., Després JP. Anthropometric correlates to changes in visceral adipose tissue over 7 years in women. Inr J Obes Rel Metab Dis. 1996;20: 61824.
  • 25
    Pouliot, MC, Després JP, Lemieux S., et al. Waist circum ference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best indexes of ab dominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related car diovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol. 1994; 73: 46068.
  • 26
    Seidell, JC, Oosterlee A., Thijssen MA, et al. Assessment of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat: relation be tween anthropometry and computed tomography. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45: 713.
  • 27
    Jensen MD, Kanaley JA, Reed JE, Sheedy PF. Measurement of abdominal and visceral fat with computed tomogra phy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61: 2748.
  • 28
    Svendsen L., Hassager C., Bergmann I., Christiansen C. Measurement of abdominal and intra-abdoiminal fat in postmenopausal women by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry: comparison with computerized tomography. Int J Obes. 1993; 17: 4551.
  • 29
    Taaffe DR, Lewis B., Marcus R. Regional fat distribution by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: comparison with anthro pometry and application in a clinical trial of growth hormone and exercise. Clin Sci. 1994;87: 5816.
  • 30
    Clasey JL, Bouchard C., Wideman L., et al. The influence of anatomical boundaries, age and sex on the assessment of ab dominal visceral fat. Obes Res. 1997;5: 395401.
  • 31
    Clasey JL, Weltman A., Bouchard C., Teates CD, Thorner MO, Hartman ML. Reliability of trunk and abdominal fat measurements dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 26th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Regional Chapter of the Ainerican College of Sports Medicine. 1998; 19a.
  • 32
    Lohman, TG, Roche AF, Martorell R. Anthropornetric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books, 1988: 154.
  • 33
    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet. 1986; 1: 30710.
  • 34
    Kvist, H., Chowdhury B., Grangard U., Tylen, U., Sjostrom L. Total and visceral adipose-tissue volume derived from measurements with computed tomography in adult men and women: predictive equations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 135161.
  • 35
    Lemieux S., Prud'homme D., Bouchard C., Tremblay A., Després JP. A single threshold value of waist girth identifies normal-weight and overweight subjects with excess visceral adipose tissue. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64: 68593.
  • 36
    Han TS, Van Leer EM, Seidell JC, Lean MEJ. Waist cir cumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascu lar risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. Br Med J. 1995;311: 14015.
  • 37
    Conway, JM, Chanetsa FF, Wang P. Intraabdominal adi pose tissue and anthropometric surrogates in African Ameri can women with upper- and lower-body obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66: 134551.
  • 38
    Bonora E., Micciolol R., Ghiaatas AA, et al. Is it possible to derive a reliable estimate of human visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from simple anthropometric mea surements Metabolisni. 1995;44: 161725.
  • 39
    Treuth MS, Hunter GR, Kekes-Szabo T. Estimating intra abdominal adipose tissue in women by dual-energy x-ray ab sorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62: 52732.
  • 40
    Carey DG, Jenkins AB, Campbell LV, Freund J., Chisholm DJ. Abdominal fat and insulin resistance in normal and over weight women. Diabetes. 1996;45: 6338.