SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37: 1595607.
  • 2
    DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance: a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care. 1991: 4: 17394.
  • 3
    Laakso M. How good a marker is insulin level for insulin resistance Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137: 95965.
  • 4
    Anderson RL, Hamman RF, Savage PJ, et al. Exploration of simple insulin sensitivity measures derived from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance (FSIGT) tests. Am J Epiderniol. 1995; 142: 72432.
  • 5
    Zavaroni L., Bonora E., Pagliara M., et al. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in healthy persons with hyperinsulinemia and normal glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 7026.
  • 6
    Modan M., Halkin H., Lusky A., Segal P., Fuchs S., Chetrit A. Hyperinsulinemia is characterized by jointly disturbed plasma VLDL, LDL, and HDL levels, a population-based study. Arteriosclerosis. 1988;8: 22736.
  • 7
    Manolio TA, Savage PJ, Burke GL, et al. Association of fasting insulin with blood pressure and lipids in young adults, the CARDIA Study. Arteriosclerosis. 1990; 10: 4306.
  • 8
    Modan M., Halkin H., Karasik A., Lusky A. Elevated serum uric acid—a facet of hyperinsulinemia. Diabetologia. 1987; 30: 7138.
  • 9
    Pyorala K. Relationship of glucose tolerance and plasma in sulin to the incidence of coronary heart disease: results from two population studies in Finland. Diabetes Care. 1979; 2: 13141.
  • 10
    Welborn TA, Wearne K. Coronary heart disease incidence and cardiovascular mortality in Busselton with reference to glucose and insulin concentrations. Diabetes Care. 1979; 2: 15460.
  • 11
    Ducimetiere P., Eschwege E., Papoz L., Richard JL, Claude JR, Rosselin G. Relationship of plasma insulin levels to the incidence of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease mortality in a middle-aged population. Diabetologia. 1980; 19: 20510.
  • 12
    Jarrett RJ, McCartney P., Keen H. The Bedford Study: ten-year mortality rates in newly diagnosed diabetics, borderline diabetics and normglyvaemic controls and risk indices for coronary heart disease in borderline diabetics. Diabetologia. 1982;22: 7984.
  • 13
    Ohlson LO, Larsson B., Svardsudd K., et al. The influence of body fat distribution on the incidence of diabetes mellitus: 13. 5 years of follow-up of the participants in the study of men born in 1913. Diabetes. 1985: 34: 10558.
  • 14
    Lapidus L., Bengtsson C., Larsson B., Pennert K., Rybo E., Sjöström L. Distribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardio vascular disease and death: I. 12-year follow-up of partici pants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Swe den. Br Med J. 1984: 289: 125761.
  • 15
    Larsson B., Svrdsudd K., Welin L., Wilhelmsen L., Björntörp P., Tibblin G. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: a 13-year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913. Br Med J. 1984;288: 14014.
  • 16
    Bouchard C., Després J. P., Maurige P. Genetic and nongenetic determinants of regional fat distribution. Endocr Rev. 1993; 1417293.
  • 17
    Després J. P., Prud'Homme D., Pouliot M. C., Tremblay A., Bouchard C. Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54: 4717.
  • 18
    Zamboni M., Armellini F., Turcato E., et al. Relationship between visceral fat, steroid hormones and insulin sensitivity in premenopausal obese women. J Intern Med. 1994; 236: 5217.
  • 19
    Tchernof A., Després J. P., Dupont A., et al. Relation of ste roid hormones to glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in men. Diabetes Care. 1995;18: 2929.
  • 20
    Ross R., Fortier L., Hudson R. Separate associations between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution, insulin and glucose levels in obese women. Diabetes Care. 1996; 19: 140411.
  • 21
    Pouliot M. C., Després J. P., Nadeau A., Moorjani S., et al. Visceral obesity in men. Associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels. Diabetes. 1992; 41: 82634.
  • 22
    Bonora E., del Prato S., Bonadonna RC, et al. Total body fat content and fat topography are associated differently with in vivo glucose metabolism in nonobese and obese nondiabetic women. Diabetes. 1992;41: 11519.
  • 23
    Lemieux S., Prud'Homme D., Nadeau A., Tremblay A., Bouchard C., Després J. P. Seven-year changes in body fat and visceral adipose tissue in women. Diabetes Care. 1996; 19: 9: 83–91.
  • 24
    Desprs J. P., Moorjani S., Lupien PJ, Tremblay A., Nadeau A., Bouchard C. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis. 1990: 10: 497511.
  • 25
    Lovejoy J., de la Bretonne JA, Klemperer M., Tulley R. Abdominal fat distribution and metabolic risk factors: effects of race. Metabolism. 1996;45: 111924.
  • 26
    Karter AJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Selby JB, et al. Insulin sensi tivity and abdominal obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women. Diabetes. 1996; 45: 154755.
  • 27
    Dowling HJ, Pi-Sunyer FX. Race-dependent health risks of upper body obesity. Diabetes. 1993;42: 53743.
  • 28
    Albu JB, Murphy L., Frager DH, Johnson JA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women. Diabetes. 1997; 46: 45662.
  • 29
    Stevens J., Keil JE, Rust PF, Tyroler HA, Davis CE, Gazes PC. Body mass index and body girths as predictors of mor tality in black and white women. Arch Int Med. 1992; 152: 125762.
  • 30
    Wienpahl J., Ragland DR, Sidney S. Body mass index and 15-year mortality in a cohort of black men and women. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43: 94960.
  • 31
    Friedman GD, Cutter GR, Donahue RP, et al. CARDIA: study design, recruitment, and some characteristics of the ex amined subjects. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;41: 110516.
  • 32
    WHO Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus. Second Re port. WHO Tech Rep Ser. 1980;646: 914.
  • 33
    Cutter GR, Burke GL, Dyer AR, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the CARDIA baseline monograph. Controlled Clin Trials. 1991;12(Suppl.): 1S77S.
  • 34
    Ettinger B., Sidney S., Cummings SR, et al. Racial differ ences in bone density between young adult black and white subjects persist after adjustment for anthropometric, lifestyle, and biochemical differences. J Clin Endocrinol MetAb. 1997; 82: 42934.
  • 35
    Seidell JC, Bakker JG, Van der Kooy K. Imaging techniques for measuring adipose-tissue distribution—a comparison between computed tomography and 1. 5T magnetic resonance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990: 51: 9537.
  • 36
    Van der Kooy K., Seidell JC. Techniques for the measure ment of visceral fat: a practical guide. Int J Obes. 1993; 17: 18796.
  • 37
    Slein MW, Cori GT, Cori CF. A comparative study of hexokinase from yeast and animal tissues. J Biol Chein. 1950; 186: 76380.
  • 38
    SAS Institute, Inc. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 5 ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.; 1985.
  • 39
    Yanovski JA, Nanovski SZ, Filmer KM, et al. Differences in body composition of black and white girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64: 8339.
  • 40
    Banerji MA, Chaiken RL, Gordon D., Kral JG, Lebovitz HE. Does intra-abdominal adipose tissue in black men deter mine whether NIDDM is insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive Diabetes. 1995;44: 1416.
  • 41
    Dua A., Hennes MI, Hoffmann RG, et al. Leptin: a signifi cant indicator of total body fat but not of visceral fat and insulin insensitivity in African-American women. Diabetes. 1996;45: 16357.