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REPROGENETICS and the “Parents Have Always Done It” Argument



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    • Erik Malmqvist, “Reprogenetics and the ‘Parents Have Always Done It’ Argument,” Hastings Center Report 41, no. 1 (2011): 43–49.


A common argument in favor of using reprogenetic technologies to enhance children goes like this: parents have always aimed at enhancing their children through upbringing and education, so why not use new tools to accomplish the same goal? But reprogenetics differs significantly from good childrearing and education, in its means, if not its ends.

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