Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Nurturing Hope


  • C. R. Snyder

    Corresponding author
    • Doctoral and Postdoctoral Clinical Psychology Programs, Department of Psychology, The University of Kansas, Lawrence. Kansas 66045-2462.

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    • C. R. Snyder is a professor and director of the clinical psychology program at the University of Kansas-Lawrence.


Hope is defined as the process of thinking about one's goals, along with the motivation to move toward (agency) and the ways to achieve (pathways) those goals. After discussing other related concepts, the scale for measuring hope is introduced, and the role of hope in the counseling process is described.