The United States has a long history of advocating policies of both extermination and assimilation of Native peoples. This historical context provides an important backdrop for understanding issues of trust/mistrust and the impact of acculturation on Native Americans who often find they have to reconcile 2 cultures. Therefore, counselors must assess a Native American client's level of acculturation rather than making assumptions based on the limited information offered by appearance or other personal characteristics. The Native American Acculturation Scale is presented as an operationalized means of formally or informally assessing a Native American client's cultural identity.