Gender Role Conflict Research 30 Years Later: An Evidence-Based Diagnostic Schema to Assess Boys and Men in Counseling


concerning this article should be addressed to James M. O'Neil, Department of Educational Psychology, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, 249 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (e-mail: James.O'


During the last 30 years, over 350 research studies have used the Gender Role Conflict Scale (O'Neil, Helms, Gable, David, & Wrightsman, 1986) to assess men's gender role conflict (GRC). The results of these studies indicate that GRC is correlated with many negative psychological outcomes for men and women, but few studies have examined the clinical application of GRC. A new diagnostic schema for counselors is presented that assesses men's gender role devaluations, restrictions, and violations.