Developmental Indices Among Central American Immigrants Exposed to War-Related Trauma: Clinical Implications for Counselors


  • Kimberly K. Asner-Self,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education, School of Education and Human Services, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
    • Educational Psychology and Special Education, Mail Code 4618, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901–4618 (e-mail:

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  • Sylvia A. Marotta

    1. Counseling, Human, and Organizational Studies, The George Washington University.
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In this study, the authors examine the separate levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) among 68 Central American immigrants who had been exposed to war-related trauma, as a function of developmental disruptions resulting in mistrust, identity confusion, and isolation. Findings indicate that variance in depression, anxiety, and PTS could be explained by the examined developmental disruptions. Clinical implications for counselors engaging in culturally sensitive trauma treatment and suggestions for research are discussed.