Study Objective. To test whether olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 activity, we conducted a drug interaction study with theophylline, a known CYP1A2 substrate.
Design. Two-way, randomized, crossover study.
Setting. Clinical research laboratory.
Subjects. Nineteen healthy males (16 smokers, 3 nonsmokers).
Interventions. Because the a priori expectation was no effect of olanzapine on theophylline pharmacokinetics, a parallel study using cimetidine was included as a positive control. In group 1, 12 healthy subjects received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of aminophylline 350 mg after 9 consecutive days of either olanzapine or placebo. In group 2, seven healthy subjects received a similar aminophylline infusion after 9 consecutive days of either cimetidine or placebo.
Measurements and Main Results. Concentrations of theophylline and its metabolites in serum and urine were measured for 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Plasma concentrations of olanzapine and its metabolites were measured for 24 hours after the next to last dose and 168 hours after the last olanzapine dose. Olanzapine did not affect theophylline pharmacokinetics. However, cimetidine significantly decreased theophylline clearance and the corresponding formation of its metabolites. Urinary excretion of theophylline and its metabolites was unaffected by olanzapine but was reduced significantly by cimetidine. Steady-state concentrations of olanzapine (15.3 ng/ml), 10-N-glucuronide (4.9 ng/ml), and 4′-N-desmethyl olanzapine (2.5 ng/ml) were observed after olanzapine 10 mg once/day and were unaffected by coadministration of theophylline.
Conclusion. As predicted by in vitro studies, steady-state concentrations of olanzapine and its metabolites did not affect theophylline pharmacokinetics and should not affect the pharmacokinetics of other agents metabolized by the CYP1A2 isozyme.