• Male infertility;
  • vasectomy reversal;
  • vasoepididymostomy

ABSTRACT: We conducted an evaluation of outcomes for microsurgical vasectomy reversal in which sperm are absent from the vas fluid in order to determine a threshold obstructive interval when vasoepididymostomy (VE) may be indicated. Vasectomy reversal was performed for 32 patients with intravasal azoospermia: 25 received bilateral vasovasostomy (VV), 1 had a bilateral VV, 5 underwent VV/VE, and 1 had bilateral VE. Overall, the patency rate was 50% (14 of 28). Five pregnancies (20%) and 3 live births (12%) occurred in 25 patients with sufficient follow-up. One pregnancy was electively terminated and the other is ongoing, for an ongoing or delivered rate of 16%. The patency rate for VV (either bilateral or unilateral) was 55% (12 of 22). Median obstructive interval was 7 years in patent and 15 years in nonpatent cases, respectively, (P = .0027). Sperm were not observed after VV in any case n which the obstructive interval was greater than 11 years. If VV was limited to obstructive intervals of 11 years or less, then the patency rate was 80% (12 of 15) and the pregnancy rate was 38% (5 of 13). The patency rate for bilateral VV was 67% (8 of 12) if clear fluid was observed on at least one side. We conclude that VE is not required in every case of intravasal azoospermia, but it could improve success rates in this setting. Based on our experience, VE may be indicated for intravasal azoospermia if the obstructive interval is more than 11 years.