Self-medication, while not a new concept, is infrequently used in a hospital setting. It has been utilized to a limited extent in geriatric, obstetric, pain control, and rehabilitation programs. This article describes the process of initiating a self-medication program on a rehabilitation unit, provides criteria for inclusion into the program, and discusses program results. Instituting the self-medication program required a concerted interdisciplinary effort that included nurses, physicians, and pharmacists. The program identified the difficulties rehabilitation patients have in taking their medications and allowed development of adaptive techniques. The program also identified patients who were unable to take medications properly. The self-medication program was of great benefit in the rehabilitation setting and is applicable in any institutional setting.