Rehabilitation programs for myocardial infarction (MI) survivors are designed to alter survivors' self-care patterns and to improve long-term physical and psychological outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in cardiac rehabilitation and health state; days of reduced activity; anxiety; depression; self-esteem; quality of life; and performance of exercise, diet, medication, stress-modification, and smoking-reduction self-care behaviors after MI. Interviews were conducted with 197 women and men 1 to 2 years after their initial MI to measure health state, mood, self-esteem, quality of life, and relevant self-care behaviors. Rehabilitation center records were reviewed to determine participation in rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation participation was significantly associated with health state; days of reduced activity; self-esteem; quality of life; and performance of exercise, diet, and medication self-care. These findings suggest that participation in cardiac rehabilitation is a worthwhile intervention that facilitates recovery from myocardial infarction.