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An effective method was sought to decrease the incidence of urinary tract infections acquired by hospitalized rehabilitation patients requiring catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in the incidence of urinary tract infections that occurred following use of two types of intermittent catheterization techniques: open catheterization and closed catheterization. The incidence of infection in both the control (open catheterization) and experimental (closed catheterization) groups was analyzed. In the control group, 9 of 14 patients (5 stroke, 4 spinal cord injured [SCI]) completed all four urine tests. Two patients developed a 20,000 colony count of enterococcus on the fourth urine sample using open catheterization. In the experimental group, 11 (4 stroke, 7 SCI) out of 16 patients maintained colony counts below 100,000 organisms per ml; one patient had a 16,000 colony count using closed catheterization. Qualitative data revealed that patients had a positive response to the closed system.