When this article was first published, Barbara Braden was an associate professor at the School of Nursing, and was the project director of the Teaching Nursing Home Project, at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. She is now dean of the Graduate School of Creighton University. Nancy Bergstrom was an associate professor at the University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Nursing. She is now an associate director of research at the Center for Aging, University of Texas School of Nursing in Houston.
A Conceptual Schema for the Study of the Etiology of Pressure Sores
Article first published online: 10 JUL 2012
2000 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Volume 25, Issue 3, pages 105–110, May-June 2000
How to Cite
Braden, B. and Bergstrom, N. (2000), A Conceptual Schema for the Study of the Etiology of Pressure Sores. Rehabilitation Nursing, 25: 105–110. doi: 10.1002/j.2048-7940.2000.tb01879.x
- Issue published online: 10 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 10 JUL 2012
Studies related to the treatment of pressure sores have appeared in the literature. Questions remain regarding both the etiology and treatment. This article presents a conceptual schema within which current knowledge can be organized and examined and further study facilitated. The critical determinants of pressure sores are primarily the intensity and duration of pressure. A second critical concept, the tolerance of the tissue for pressure, is also discussed. Conditions contributing to prolonged and intense pressure are included within the concepts of mobility, activity, and sensory perception. Tissue tolerance for pressure is influenced by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors such as moisture, friction, and shear impinge on the skin and underlying tissues, while the multiple influences of nutrition, the physiologic effects of stress, aging, and alterations in cellular respiration are intrinsic factors which influence the architecture and integrity of the skin and supporting structures. The schema provides broad categories capable of organizing existing knowledge and new findings.