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Keywords:

  • Key words: ;
  • Apple wine;
  • apple juice;
  • fermentation;
  • flavor analysis headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS)

ABSTRACT

Flavor volatiles are important components of alcoholic beverages. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were investigated for the determination of flavor-contributing volatiles for apple wine. HS-SPME parameters were defined, including fiber coatings, extraction time, and extraction temperature. Good linearity, recoveries, and repeatability of the SPME method using carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (carboxen-PDMS) fiber were obtained with r2 values, recoveries, and relative standard deviations ranging from 0.9112 to 0.9960, 80.23% to 110.21%, and 1.5% to 6.4% respectively using standard solution. No significant effects of ethanol concentration on headspace concentrations of analytes were observed when ethanol concentration changed from 0% to 12% (v/v), indicating that the HS-SPME-GC-MS method can be used for the determination of flavor volatiles in apple wine with an alcohol content below 12% (v/v) as well as in apple juice, and the method enables the monitoring of volatiles in mash during fermentation.