• Governance;
  • Interorganizational citizenship;
  • Supply chain relationships;
  • Symbiotic relationships

Exchanges among firms operating in supply chains are complex due to relational embeddedness, i.e., the extent to which relationships, rather than economic rationality, govern firm-to-firm interactions. For many years interfirm relationships were assumed to be best managed via coercive tactics. However, for the last two decades much attention has been given in the literature to more relational forms of governance, and recent supply chain research examining relationship nature, magnitude, and type implies the need for an alternative symbiotic explanation for supply chain relationship effectiveness. To address this void in the literature, this article introduces the concept of interorganizational citizenship behaviors (ICB's). Based on a review of literature from multiple business domains, common types of ICB's are identified, and research hypotheses are developed and tested. Future research initiatives and implications for supply chain management practice are also provided.