Within the U.S. Department of Transportation and among U.S. motor carriers, there has been increased interest in the potential benefits of electronic logbooks to improve the safety of trucking operations. This paper investigates the specific contribution of electronic logbooks to improving firm safety performance (as measured by the number of crashes and hours of service violations). The models presented demonstrate that electronic logbooks contribute positively to crash reduction and to decreases in hours of service violations, particularly among carriers with poor overall safety records. Moreover, hours of service violations fully mediate the relationship between electronic logbook use and number of crashes. These results have policy significance as the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration has proposed a rule that would require the use of electronic logbooks for some carriers.