Trends in the History of Vocational Guidance


concerning this article should be addressed to Edwin L. Herr, Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special Education, Pennsylvania State University, 125 CEDAR Building, University Park, PA 16802 (e-mail:


In this article, the relationships between vocational guidance and vocational education, employment counseling, career guidance, and career counseling are explored. Also examined are the wide-ranging federal and state policies that have stimulated and shaped the professional history of vocational guidance, vocational policy, and contemporary terms.