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Assessing and Promoting Resilience: An Additional Tool to Address the Increasing Number of College Students With Psychological Problems


  • Michael T. Hartley is now at Department of Disability and Psychoeducational Studies, University of Arizona.

concerning this article should be addressed to Michael T. Hartley, Department of Disability and Psychoeducational Studies, College of Education, University of Arizona, 1430 East Second Street, Room 422, Tucson, AZ 85721 (e-mail:


This study examined the assessment of resilience in undergraduate college students. Multigroup comparisons of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003) were performed on general population students and students recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling, psychiatric-support, and disability-support services. Results found that the 10-item CD-RISC demonstrated strong fit and reliability, with significantly higher scores for general population students. Implications for college counseling include assessing and promoting resilience on campuses.