Get access

Social Justice at the Microlevel: Working With Clients' Prejudices


  • The author expresses her gratitude to Peggy Ceballos for her encouragement and critiques throughout the writing of the manuscript.

concerning this article should be addressed to Bailey P. MacLeod, Department of Counseling, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, College of Education, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28223 (e-mail:


Social justice is considered the 5th force in counseling and has largely been aimed toward advocating for oppressed individuals and groups by creating change in the societal structures that maintain oppression. However, there is a lack of information for counselors who work with clients who oppress others. This article addresses assessment, conceptualization, and ethical considerations when White clients express racial prejudices in counseling and how it aligns with the goals of social justice.

La justicia social está considerada como la 5ª fuerza en la consejería y ha sido dirigida hacia la defensoría de individuos y grupos oprimidos, creando cambios en las estructuras sociales que mantienen la opresión. Sin embargo, hay una carencia de información para consejeros que trabajan con clientes que oprimen a otros. Este artículo trata de la evaluación, conceptualización y consideraciones éticas cuando clientes de raza blanca expresan prejuicios raciales durante la consejería y cómo esto se alinea con los objetivos de la justicia social.