Summary of Studies
A number of studies have investigated the relationship between creativity and bilingualism. Twenty-four such studies have been surveyed by the author and these are summarized in Table 1. Twenty of these have found bilinguals to perform better than monolinguals on creativity. Only one study by Withey (1974) has found no differences between the bilinguals and monolinguals, whilst three studies, on the whole, have found a monolingual superiority (Gowan & Torrance, 1965; Lemmon & Goggin, 1989; Torrance, Wu, Gowan & Aliotti, 1970).