Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that has been increasingly used in acute treatment of, and therapeutic support for, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychoses. Considering that olanzapine acts on the dopaminergic receptor and this receptor is detected in germ cells, the present study aims to investigate the effects of treatment with different doses of olanzapine on spermatogenesis, plasma testosterone and weight of androgen-dependent organs in rats. Results showed reduced plasma testosterone levels, and reduced testis, epididymis and prostate weights. Histopathologic and histomorphometric analysis of spermatogenesis indicated testicular degeneration. Furthermore, germ cell desquamation, syncytial multinucleated cells, Sertoli cell vacuolization and presence of necrotic and apoptotic germ cells wwew observed. Olanzapine treatment in rats promoted endocrinological changes and lesions in the testis, leading to a disturbance in spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.