Comparison of in vitro cytotoxicity, estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of triclosan, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid

Authors

  • Natasha D. Henry,

    Corresponding author
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, USA
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  • Patricia A. Fair

    1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, USA
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Correspondence to: N. D. Henry, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412–9110, USA.

E-mail: natasha.henry@noaa.gov

ABSTRACT

Concern with increasing levels of emerging contaminants exists on a global scale. Three commonly observed emerging environmental contaminants: triclosan (2,4,4-trichloro-2′-hydroxydiphenyl ether), a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in stain- and water-resistant treatments, have become distributed ubiquitously across ecosystems and have been detected in wildlife and humans. MCF-7 BOS human breast cancer cells were used to investigate the potential for cytotoxicity, estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of these three compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt assay (MTS) and the E-SCREEN bioassay. The doses used were 0.002–200 µg ml−1 for triclosan and 0.03–30 µg ml−1 for PFOS and PFOA. Quantitative results from the MTS assay revealed no significant cytotoxicity at lower concentrations for any of the test compounds; however, both triclosan and PFOA were cytotoxic at the highest concentrations examined (100–200 and 30 µg ml−1, respectively), while PFOS showed no significant cytotoxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Positive estrogenic responses (P < 0.05) were elicited from the E-SCREEN at all concentrations examined for triclosan and PFOA and at 30 µg ml−1 for PFOS. Further, significant anti-estrogenic activity (P < 0.05) was detected for all compounds tested at all concentrations when cells were co-exposed with 10−9m 17-β estradiol (E2). The overall results demonstrated that triclosan, PFOS and PFOA have estrogenic activities and that co-exposure to contaminants and E2 produced anti-estrogenic effects. Each of these compounds could provide a source of xenoestrogens to humans and wildlife in the environment. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

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