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Presence of phthalate esters in intravenous solution evaluated using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method

Authors


Correspondence to: Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. E-mail: vgaraj@imi.hr

ABSTRACT

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the production of poly-(vinyl) chloride (PVC) materials. It is a reproductive and developmental toxicant in animals and a suspected endocrine modulator in humans. DEHP is not covalently bound within the PVC molecule, which is why migration into a suitable medium can be expected. Since application of infusion solutions is one of the most common medical treatments, the objective of this study was to determine the migration of phthalates from softened PVC storage bags into infusion solution in different time periods within one year from date of production using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. The measured values of DEHP ranged between 0.22 and 14.00 µg l−1, but the unexpected presence of other phthalate esters was also detected. It was concluded that values obtained in infusion solutions match the reference data and represent a minor risk for the patient. The presence of other phthalate esters leads to the conclusion that the pharmacopeic requirement for polymer cleanness was not fully met. Since phthalate esters are among the most extensively used industrial chemicals and are widely distributed in the environment, special precautions and further monitoring should be conducted to minimize any possible health risks. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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