Raman spectroscopy as a detection and analysis tool for in vitro specific targeting of pancreatic cancer cells by EGF-conjugated, single-walled carbon nanotubes
Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Applied Toxicology
Volume 32, Issue 5, pages 365–375, May 2012
How to Cite
Karmakar, A., Iancu, C., Bartos, D. M., Mahmood, M. W., Ghosh, A., Xu, Y., Dervishi, E., Collom, S. L., Khodakovskaya, M., Mustafa, T., Watanabe, F., Biris, A. R., Zhang, Y., Ali, S. F., Casciano, D., Hassen, S., Nima, Z. and Biris, A. S. (2012), Raman spectroscopy as a detection and analysis tool for in vitro specific targeting of pancreatic cancer cells by EGF-conjugated, single-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Appl. Toxicol., 32: 365–375. doi: 10.1002/jat.1742
- Issue published online: 23 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 10 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Received: 1 JUN 2011
- cancer cells;
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were covalently linked to epidermal growth factor (EGF) proteins through an esterification process that was found to be responsible for the docking of SWCNTs on the human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) surface, thus providing a mechanism for the enhanced delivery and internalization of the nanotubes. Micro Raman spectroscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to evaluate the delivery process and kinetics of the SWCNTs. In vitro studies indicated that the delivery kinetics of SWCNT–EGF conjugates, at a concentration of 85 µg ml−1, to the PANC-1 cell surfaces was significant in the first 30 min of incubation, but reached a plateau with time in accordance with the establishment of equilibrium between the association and the dissociation of EGF with the cell receptors. SWCNT–EGF conjugates could act as strong thermal ablation agents and could induce higher percentages of cellular death compared with the nontargeted SWCNTs alone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.