Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced?
Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Applied Toxicology
Volume 32, Issue 5, pages 318–332, May 2012
How to Cite
Silva, N., Peiris-John, R., Wickremasinghe, R., Senanayake, H. and Sathiakumar, N. (2012), Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced?. J. Appl. Toxicol., 32: 318–332. doi: 10.1002/jat.1771
- Issue published online: 23 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 16 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Received: 4 MAR 2011
- University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Grant Number: ASP/6/Re/2008/06
Metalloestrogens are inorganic metal ions that bind to and activate oestrogen receptors. They are implicated in the aetiology of oestrogen-dependent diseases such as cancers of the breast and endometrium as well as endometriosis. Cadmium is one of the most studied metalloestrogens. In this review, scientific evidence for the oestrogenic effects of cadmium is critically evaluated to determine if there is sufficient evidence to support cadmium as an aetiological factor of oestrogen-dependent disease in humans. Results of the review indicated that, although the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the oestrogenic properties of cadmium was persuasive, evidence from population-based human studies remains conflicting. Considerable knowledge gaps exist on the potential oestrogenic effect of cadmium in humans. Research that focuses on bridging these knowledge gaps would be useful in preventing and managing oestrogen-dependent disease in humans. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.