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Epigenetic targets of some toxicologically relevant metals: a review of the literature†
Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Applied Toxicology
Volume 32, Issue 9, pages 643–653, September 2012
How to Cite
Cheng, T.-F., Choudhuri, S. and Muldoon-Jacobs, K. (2012), Epigenetic targets of some toxicologically relevant metals: a review of the literature. J. Appl. Toxicol., 32: 643–653. doi: 10.1002/jat.2717
- Issue published online: 26 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 13 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Received: 21 OCT 2011
- gene expression;
- DNA methylation;
- histone modification;
- noncoding RNA;
- inorganic heavy metals;
- organic metals
The term epigenetics was coined in the context of developmental studies, but the meaning of the term has evolved over time. Epigenetic modulators of gene expression are now known to include DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and noncoding RNAs. The observation that epigenetic changes can be transmitted transgenerationally makes the science of epigenetics very relevant to the field of environmental and molecular toxicology. Heavy metals constitute an important class of environmental contaminants that have been known to influence gene expression directly by binding various metal response elements in the target gene promoters. Recent research suggests that metals can also influence gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms; this adds a new twist to the complexity of metal-mediated gene expression. Here, we review recent studies that investigate the epigenetic, gene expression, and biological effects of various inorganic and organic forms of heavy metals, such as cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, methylmercury, lead, copper and organotin compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.