Chromatographic determination of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor using solid-phase extraction
Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Applied Toxicology
Volume 33, Issue 8, pages 740–745, August 2013
How to Cite
Fernández, P., Seoane, S., Vázquez, C., Tabernero, M. J., Carro, A. M. and Lorenzo, R. A. (2013), Chromatographic determination of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor using solid-phase extraction. J. Appl. Toxicol., 33: 740–745. doi: 10.1002/jat.2722
- Issue published online: 21 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 22 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Received: 22 NOV 2011
- drugs of abuse;
- vitreous humor;
A simple method is presented for the simultaneous determination of morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, methadone and 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) in vitreous humor by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector after solid-phase extraction with Oasis® HLB cartridges and dichloromethane as eluent. The chromatographic process was carried out using an XTerra® RP8 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and pH 6.5 phosphate buffer in gradient mode. A linear response from the detector was obtained within the concentration range of 0.1–4 µg ml−1, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The limits of detection were lower than 30 ng ml−1 for all the drugs studied, the coefficients of variation fluctuated between 0.1 and 12.4%, and the average recoveries were higher than 78% for all the drugs except for EDDP, with a value of 66.4%. Finally, the proposed method was applied to 15 vitreous humor samples coming from individuals who had died from opiate and/or cocaine overdose, showing consumption of cocaine in 14 cases, methadone in five cases and heroin in three cases. Average concentrations of 0.30 µg ml−1 for morphine, 0.24 µg ml−1 for 6-acetylmorphine, 0.10 µg ml−1 for codeine, 0.81 µg ml−1 for cocaine, 1.26 µg ml−1 for benzoylecgonine, 0.15 µg ml−1 for cocaethylene, 0.11 µg ml−1 for methadone and 0.68 µg ml−1 for EDDP were obtained. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.