Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon
Article first published online: 19 MAY 2012
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Applied Toxicology
Volume 33, Issue 9, pages 894–900, September 2013
How to Cite
Petroianu, G. A., Nurulain, S. M., Shafiullah, M., Hasan, M. Y., Kuča, K. and Lorke, D. E. (2013), Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon. J. Appl. Toxicol., 33: 894–900. doi: 10.1002/jat.2760
- Issue published online: 23 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 19 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 28 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Received: 20 JAN 2012
- Cox analysis;
Reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors can protect against the lethal effects of irreversible organophosphorus AChE inhibitors (OPCs), when administered before OPC exposure. We have assessed in vivo the mortality-reducing efficacy of a group of known AChE inhibitors, when given in equitoxic dosage before exposure to the OPC paraoxon. Protection was quantified in rats by determining the relative risk (RR) of death.
Best in vivo protection from paraoxon-induced mortality was observed after prophylactic administration of physostigmine (RR = 0.30) or the oxime K-27 (RR = 0.34); both treatments were significantly superior to the pre-treatment with all other tested compounds, including the established substance pyridostigmine. Tacrine (RR = 0.67), ranitidine (RR = 0.72), pyridostigmine (RR = 0.76), tiapride (RR = 0.80) and 7-MEOTA (RR = 0.86) also significantly reduced the relative risk of paraoxon-induced death, but to a lesser degree. Methylene blue, amiloride and metoclopramide had an unfavorable effect (RR ≥ 1), significantly increasing mortality. When CNS penetration by prophylactic is undesirable K-27 is a promising alternative to pyridostigmine. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.