Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent

Authors

  • K. A. Brown,

    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • T. Mays,

    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • A. Romoser,

    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • A. Marroquin-Cardona,

    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • N. J. Mitchell,

    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • S. E. Elmore,

    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • T. D. Phillips

    Corresponding author
    1. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
    • Correspondence to: T. Phillips, Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, TAMU 4458, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. E-mail: tphillips@cvm.tamu.edu

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ABSTRACT

Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB1 and FB1 at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB1 and FB1 toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB1 binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB1 bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9–7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB1, AFB1 and FB1/AFB1 combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml–1 for AFB1, whereas the MEC for FB1 was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml–1 FB1 + 10 µg ml–1 AFB1. This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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