Figure S1. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of brookite-type (BTO) (A, B) and anatase-type (ATO) nanorods (C, D). Images were captured at low (A, C) and high magnification (B, D).

Figure S2. (A) (XRD) patterns, (B) FT-IR and (C) BET measurements and the corresponding N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms of brookite-type (BTO) and anatase-type (ATO) nanorods.

Figure S3. Changes in nanorod properties in cell culture medium. Anatase-type (ATO) and brookite-type (BTO) nanorods were incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 10% FBS and 1% antibiotics for the specified times at 37 °C in a CO2 incubator. (A) surface charge, (B) hydrodynamic diameter.

Figure S4. Histopathological changes in the lung tissue of mice exposed to TiO2 nanorods. The arrow indicates the cells that had taken up nanorods.

Figure S5. Changes in cell phenotype in the blood of mice exposed to TiO2 nanorods. Whole blood harvested from 12 mice was pooled to prepare four test samples for the assay (n = 4, 3 mice per test sample). Each group showed a similar trend (representative data shown in this figure).

Figure S6. Changes in cytokine secretion into blood. Serum harvested from 12 mice was pooled to prepare 4 test samples for the cytokine assay (n = 4, 3 mice per test sample). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01

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