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Foamy macrophage responses in the rat lung following exposure to inhaled pharmaceuticals: a simple, pragmatic approach for inhaled drug development



Successes in the field of respiratory medicines are largely limited to three main target classes: β2-adrenergic receptor agonists, muscarinic antagonists and corticosteroids. A significant factor in attrition during the development of respiratory medicines is the induction of foamy macrophage responses, particularly, in rats. The term foamy macrophage describes a vacuolated cytoplasmic appearance, seen by light microscopy, which is ultrastructurally characterized by the presence of lysosomal lamellar bodies, neutral lipid droplets or drug particles. We propose a simple classification, based light-heartedly on the theme ‘the good, the bad and the ugly’, which allows important distinctions to be made between phenotypes, aetiologies and adversity. Foamy macrophages induced in rat lungs by exposure to inhaled β2-agonists, antimuscarinics and corticosteroids are simple aggregates of uniform cells without other associated pathologies. In contrast, macrophage reactions induced by some other inhaled drug classes are more complex, associated with neutrophilic or lymphocytic infiltrations with/without damage to the adjacent alveolar walls. Foamy macrophage responses induced by inhaled drugs may be ascribed to either phagocytosis of poorly soluble drug particles, or to pharmacology. Both corticosteroids and β2-agonists increase surfactant synthesis whereas muscarinic antagonists may decrease surfactant breakdown, due to inhibition of phospholipase C, both of which lead to phagocytosis of excess surfactant. Simple foamy macrophage responses are considered non-adverse, whereas ones that are more complex are designated as adverse. The development of foamy macrophage responses has led to confusion in interpretation and we hope this review helps clarify what is in fact a relatively simple, predictable, easily interpretable, commonly induced change. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.